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* 



I 



MEDICAL FACTS 



AND 



OBSERVATIONS. 



VOL. VI. 






MEDICAL FACTS 



AND 



OBSERVATIONS. 



VOLUME THE SIXTH, 



LONDON 



raiNTtD rox j. johnson, n° 72, jt. faul's churik yarb. 



M.DCC.XCV. 







Cr a **<\*T&- 



C * 3 



CONTENTS. 

Pa-re 



•a' 



I. OBSERVATIONS on the Ufe of Arfenic 
in the Intermittent Fevers of a tropical Cli- 
mate ; to zvhich is prefixed an Account of 
the Weather, at Sierra Leone, during the 
Seafon in zvhich fuch Fevers are moft pre~ 
<valent. By Thomas Mafterman Win- 
terbottom, M. D. Phyfician to the Set- 
tlement at Sierra Leone. - — — 1 

II. An Account of the good Effefts of a So- 
lution of Sal Ammoniac, in Finegar, em- 
ployed, as a topical Application, in Cafes 
of lacerated Wounds. By Mr. Henry Yates 
Carter, Surgeon at Kettley, near Welling- 
ton, in Shropjhire. ■ — 66 

III. Cafe of a difeafed Kidney. By the fame. S$ 

IV. Cafe of a Gun-Shot Wound of the Head. 

By the fame. — «- — q i 

V. An Account offome extraordinary Symp- 
toms which zvere apparently connecled 

with 



Page 



[ vi ] 

with certain morbid Alterations about 
the Veins and Nerves. By Mr. John 
Pearfon, Surgeon of the Lock Hofpital> 
and of the Public Difpenfary. — 96 

VI. An Account of the Extraclion of an 
extraneous Subjlance from the Reclum. By 
Mr. William Blair, Surgeon of the Lock 
Hofpital ; and of the General Difpenfary 

in Newman Street, St. Mary-le-bone. 11 1 

VII. A Cafe of Aneurifm of the Crural Ar- 
tery. By Mr. Thompfon Forfter, Sur- 
geon on the Staff of the Army, and Sur- 
geon to Guy's Hofpital. — 114 

VIII. An Account of a Key Infirument of a new 
Conjlrutlion ; with Qbfervations on the 
Principles on which it acls, in the Extrac- 
tion of Teeth, and on the Mode of applying 
it. By Mr. Robert Clarke, Surgeon at 
Sunderland, in the County of Durham. 120 

IX. An Account of a new Species of Swie- 
tenia (Mahogany) ; and of Experiments 
and Obfervations on its Bark, made with 
a Viezv to afcertain its Powers, and to 
compare them with thofe of Peruvian Bark, 
for which it is propofed as a Subjlitute': 

1 Being 



[ vii ] 

Page 

Being an Abjlracl of a Paper on this Sub- 
ject, addreffed to the Honourable Court of 
Directors of the United Eafl- India Com- 
pany. By William Roxburgh, M.D. 127 

X. An Account of the Effecls of Mahogany 
Wood in Cafes of Diarrhea. By Mr. 
Francis Hughes, Surgeon of the General 
Infirmary at Stafford. — — 156 

XI. Account of forne Difcoveries made by 
Mr. Galvani, of Bologna ; with Experi- 
ments and Obfervations on them. In two 
Letters from Mr. A lexanderVoka, F.R.S. 
Profeffor of Natural Philofophy in the 
Univerfity of Pavia, to Mr, Tiberius Ca- 
vallo, F. R. S. — From the Philofophical 
Tranfadions of the Royal Society of Lon- 
don. — — 162 

XII. A Return of the Sick of the Ship's 
Company y and of the Military , on Board 
the Ships in the Service of the Honoura- 
ble the United Eaft-India Company, for 

-the Tears 1792 and 1793. By John 
Larimer, M. D. — 211 

XIII. An Account of a fingular Cafe of Ifchu- 
ria, in d young Woman, which continued 

for 



Pag« 



[ Viii ] 

for more than three Years ; during which 
Time, if her Urine was not drawn off with 
the Catheter, Jhe frequently voided it by 
vomiting; and, for the laft twenty Months, 
faffed much Gravel by the Catheter, as 
well as by vomiting, when the Ufe of that 
Inftrument was omitted, or unfuccejs fully 
applied. To which are added Jome Remarks 
and Phyfwlogical Obfervations. By Ifaac 
Senter, M. D. AJfociate Member of the 
College of Phyficians of Philadelphia, and 
Jenior Surgeon in the late American Army. 
Vide Tran/atlions of the College of Phyfi- 
cians, of Philadelphia. — — 2 re 

Catalogue of Books* — — 223 

Index. •— — — 228 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

Plate the Firir, the references to which are explained in 
pages 92 and 116, may be placed at page 92 ; and plate tke 
fccoDd at page ill. 





f\r"^#- 



lUXU 



MEDICAL FACTS 



AND 



OBSERVATIONS. 



L Obfervations on the life of Ar/enic in the Inter- 
mittent Fevers of a tropical Climate ; to which 
is prefixed an Account of the Weather, at Sierra 
Leone, during the Seafon in whuh Juch Fevers 
are mofi prevalent. By Thomas Mafterman 
Winterbottom, M. D. Phyftcian to the Set- 
tlement at Sierra Leone. 

AS arfenic, though of late years frequently 
and fuccefsfully ufed in England for the 
cure of intermittent fevers, has not, to my know- 
ledge, been hitherto employed in a tropical cli- 
mate ; fome account of its ufe in Africa, with 
the hiftories of a few of the cafes in which it 
was exhibited, will not, I hope, be altogether 
unacceptable. 

Vol. VI. B It 



C * 3 

It maybe proper however to premife a fhou ac- 
count of the weather at Sierra Leone during the 
feafon in which intermittents are moft prevalent. 

The year may be divided into the rainy, 
tornado, and dry feafons. The rains on this 
part of the coaft commonly fet in about the 
end of May, or beginning of June ; and conti- 
nue, more or lefs violently, until the beginning 
or middle of September : they are then fuc- 
ceeded by tornadoes, which continue until the 
end of November. It muit be obierved, how- 
ever, that the rains are not only carried off by 
tornadoes, but alfo brought on by them ; and 
that the tornadoes preceding the rains are, in 
genera! > kfs regular than thofe which terminate 
them. The dry feafon continues from Decem- 
ber until May, though (bowers of rain fome- 
times occur during the dry months. 

In 1792, the rains commenced about the end, 
of May, and continued for fome time to be 
very heavy; from the middle of July, however, 
until the lafl week of Auguft, there were fre- 
quent intervals of fair weather, twelve hours of 
rain being generally followed by twenty-four or 
thirty hours of fair weather, with fometimes a 
bright fun. During this period the thermo- 
meter at noon ufually flood at from 7 8° to 8o°. 

The 



C 3 1 

The lad week of Auguft and firft week of Sep- 
tember were remarkable for an almoft inceflant 
rain, which was for the mod part fmall and 
drizzly, though it fometimes fell in heavy 
fliowers ; the air at the fame time felt cold and 
raw, particularly in the evenings and mornings, 
when a thick fog covered the hills. The ther- 
mometer at noon was from 77 to 8o°. 

On the 7th of September a tornado came on, 
which returned on the 10th, 15th, 16th, 18th, 
19th, 2 1 ft, 22d, 24th, 26th, 28th, and 30th. 

On the 8th, nth, iath, 25th, and 29th, the 
(bowers of rain were frequent. 

On the 9th, nth, 14th, and 23d, thunder 
and lightning occurred during fome part of the 
day. The 9th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 24th, and 26th 
were fultry and almoft calm. During the con- 
tinuance of the rains, the winds chiefly blew 
from between the fouth and weft points, but 
moil frequently from the fouth-weft, whence alfo 
the heavieft rain came. 

As foon as the tornadoes appeared, the fca 
and land breezes had a more regular iucceflion; 
the fea breeze ufually began from the north- 
weft about eight or nine A. M., and towards 
funfet drew round to the weft : the land breeze 
then fetting in from the caft or fouth-eaft, con- 
B 2 tinued 



C 4 ] 

tinued to blow all night and during the early 
part of the morning. 

Towards the end of the month the thermo- 
meter generally ftood at 8 2° at noon, the at- 
mofphere being lefs hazy, and the air cool. 

The month of October was throughout at- 
tended with regular fea and land breezes ; the 
at mofphere was free from haze, but fometimes 
overcaft with clouds during the day ; the whole 
of the month was cool and agreeable, though 
the thermometer at noon generally flood at 82% 
and on the 29th at 84 . 

A tornado occurred every night, or early in 
the morning, from the ift to the 18th inclu- 
lively, frequently attended with heavy rain for 
fome hours, and with much thunder and light- 
ning. During the remainder of the month the 
tornadoes became lefs frequent, occurring only 
on the 19th, 2 1 ft, 23d, 25th, 27th, 28th, and 
29th. The 1 ft, 17th, and 24th were fultry. 
On the 24th it was calm all day. On the %d 
there was much thunder and lightning. On the 
7th, 15th, 1 8th, 21ft, and 30th, frequent 
fhowers of rain fell. The tornado on the 17th 
came from the fouth-weft which is uncommon. 
The tornado on the id, was not followed by 
rain. The 26th was remarkably hazy all day. 

-The 



C 5 ] 

The lightning was extremely vivid on the 28th, 
appearing in long dreams or chains of fire. 

The month of November was much warmer 
than the preceding one, the thermometer at 
noon being from 82 to 84 . On the nth it 
rofe to 8 5 . It was on the 5th at 75 . There was 
continued rain till noon, when the (ky became 
clear, the day calm and fultry. The atmof- 
phere during the greateh 1 part of the month was 
clouded and hazy, at lead the tops of the hills 
were covered with bnze during fome part of the 
day. The fea and land breezes continued to 
blow very frefli, but the mornings were fre- 
quently calm and fultry till near ten A. M. On 
the 28th it was calm all day. Tornadoes oc- 
curred on the 2d, 8th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 16th, 
19th, and 25th. The 5th, 17th, and 23d were 
rainy. The 5th, nth, 14th, 18th, and 28th, 
were fultry, with a little wind. 

In December alfo the fky was generally huzy 
and clouded ; the fca and land breezes were 
pretty frefh during their continuance, but the 
mornings were for the mod part calm, the fea 
breeze not fitting in till near ten A. M.; the 
evenings alfo were clofe and fultry from fun-fet 
till late at night. 

A tornado came on, the morning of the 7th, 
B 3 followed 



I 6 ] 

followed by much rain, thunder, and lightning; 
but it cleared up before noon ; a heavy fhower 
fell in the afternoon of the fame day. 

The clearer!: cays this month were the 3d, 
9th, 13th, 1 8th, 24th, and 25th. 

On the 5th, 8th, 14th, 15th, and 2zd, gentle 
fnowers fell : on the 8th there was much thun- 
der and lightning. The weather was U.lt n , 
with little wind, on the ift, 3d, 14th, i< 
2 2d, and 27th. The 14th and 27th wen: c 
days. The land wind blew all day on the 1 
and the fouth-weft and fouth-fou h wed ■■ 
on the 2d, 30th, and 31ft cavs. The t cymo- 
meter at eight A. M. ufually ftood at from 77 
to 8o°; on the 13th at 75 , and on the 26th at 
8i°: at noon it was from 3i° to 84°; at e ; ght 
P. M. from 7 8° to 2o°. 

The remittent fever which during the months 
of June, July, and Auguft, had very generally 
prevailed here, and had raged with great vio- 
lence, began to abate in the month of Septem- 
ber. Eaily in the month, this difeale had not 
only become lefs frequent, but alfo more mild 
in its fymptoms, gradually changing into the 
form of an intermittent. Towards the end of 
the month it became very rare, the cafes which 
occurred being chiefly among the whites, ef- 

pecially 



[ 7 ] 

pecially thofe lately arrived in the country; or 
others who had been irregular and intemperate 
during the courfe of preceding intermittent com- 
plaints. 

In the months of October, November, and 
December, intermittents were fo prevalent, that 
fcarcely a family in the fettlement, although the 
whole number was nearly 400, remained perfectly 
free from them. They generally obferved the 
quotidian and tertian type; there were, how- 
ever, a few inftances of double tertians. Moft of 
the above cafes were fo mild, particularly 
among the men, as not to prevent them from 
following their different occupations, except 
during the time of the paroxyfm. But in fome 
inftances, the daily recurrence of the difeafe, 
the long continuance of the paroxyfm, and a 
poor diet, confiding chiefly of fa'ted meats, 
rice, caflada, &c. reduced the pa'itnts ro a 
Hate of great debility, and ir.f.nfibly laid the 
foundation of long and tedious complaints. 
The greateft fufilrers from intermittents were 
thofe who had previouily laboured under re- 
mittent fevers, and had not yet recovered their 
ftrength ; alfo perfons of delicate and irritable 
habits, children, and women giving fuck. 

In every inftance where the bark was taken 
B4 in 



C 8 ] • 

in due quantities, and perfifted in for a proper 
length of time, the paroxyfm was fpeedily 
checked, and the danger of a relapfe effectu- 
ally prevented ; nor did the patient fuffer 
thofe ill effe&s which ufually occur where the 
difeafe has continued long, and been left to 
icfelf. Few, however, of the common people 
could be prevailed upon to take the bark in 
any form ; and even thofe who took enough of 
it to obviate the return of a fingle parox\fm, 
would feldom continue it a fufficient length of 
time to eradicate the difeafe. Thefe confidera- 
tions, joined to an apprehenfion that fcrious 
and alarming confequences might enfue from 
frequent relapfes, determined me to try the 
effects of the mineral folution, according to the 
plan recommended by Dr. Fowler*. The fear 
of difordering the bowels, and inducing dy- 
fenteric fymptoms, rendered me at firiT \ery 
cautious in its ufe ; but on finding, after re- 
peated trials, that no ill effe&s were produced 
by its exhibition, I was encouraged to employ 
it more generally. The fuccefs with which it 
w r as attended will appear from the following de- 
tail of cafes : 

* Medical Reports of the Effects of Arfenic in the Cure 
of Agues, &c. 8vo. London, 1786. 

CASE 



c 9:3 



CASE I. 

O&ober 4. — S. Peters, a black, aged four 
years, is affected every day, about noon, with 
coldnefs and violent fhiverings, which conti- 
nue near an hour, and are then fucceeded 
by a hot dry {kin, head-ach, and fometimes 
vomiting. The paroxyfm islterminated in the 
evening by a copious perfpiration. In the ab- 
fenceof the fit he makes no complaint, but ap- 
pears languid and weak, and has little appetite. 
A confiderable degree of hardnefs is felt on the 
left fide, with a tumour projecting below the 
cartilages of the falfe ribs. He was ordered to 
take four drops of the mineral folution three 
times a day. 

5. Had no cold fit yeftcrday at the ufual time, 
but appeared heavy and uneafy ; no ficknefs or 
griping was occafioned by the drops. 

8. Has had no return of the paroxyfm lincc 
the 3d. No griping nor any fenfible effect has 
been produced by the medicine. 

The folution was now omitted, and he took, 
on the 9th, four grains of calomel. This child 
had no relapfe, and has continued fince to 

enjoy 



[ 10 ] 

enjoy good health, al' ough the tumour in the 
fide did not wholly dilappear till the beginning 
of the year 1793. 

•CASE II. 

October 4. — Hannah Peters, a black, aged 
thirty-fix years, has been for two months pad af- 
fected with an intermittent fever ; at prefent a 
paroxyfm comes on every day at noon. During 
the hot fit, fbe has a confide: able pain of the 
head, efpecially over the eyes, which conti- 
nues till evening, and is gradually abated by 
the fvveat which then breaks out. Her ilrength 
and appetite are much diminifhed. 

Capiat folutionis mineralis guttas x. ter die. 

6. Had no return of fever yefterday at the 
ufual time ; but towards evening had a flight 
cold fit, fucceeded by heat and fweating. The 
paroxyfm, however, was neither fo fevere, nor 
of fo long continuance as ufual. She felt a 
little griping in her bowels. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

8. Has omitted the folution two days, and has 
had a return of the hot fit each day at the ufual 
time, without the preceding cold flage. She 
was defired to continue the drops regularly. 

16. Has 



[ » ] 

1 6. His taken the folution regularly fince 
the lad report, during which time fhe has not 
had the Laft return of her ague, nor any pain 
of the bowels. 

Omittatur iblutio et capiat Infus. Cort. Anguft. 31'ij tet die. 

CASE III. 

October io.— David Edmonds, a black, aged 
forty years, has had every day, for near a 
month pad, a paroxyfm of ague, attended 
with a very fevere pain of the head. Of late 
the fit has only returned every, fecond day, be- 
ginni * about one o'clock, P.M. ' In the ab- 
J ..i^e of the paroxyfm he has no complaint but 
languor and debility. 

Capiat foiut. min. guttas x. ter die. 

ii. Had a flight attack yefterday evening, 
which did not continue long ; he felt no griping 
or naufea from the folution. 

Rcpetatur Solutio. 

1 6. Has neglected his medicine for fomc 
days, during which he has mhTed the cold fit, 
but had a pretty fmart hot fit every day, towards 
evening. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

20. Has had no return of the cold or hot fit 

fincc 



[ I* ] 

iince the 16th: he continues the folution without 
experiencing any difagreeable effect from it. 



CASE IV. 

Odtob. 5. — J. Barnes, ag^d thirty-fix years, of a 
fair complexion, and florid, with red hair, was 
attacked with the remittent fever about the end 
of Auguft lad:, from which he recovered by 
a liberal ufe of the bark ; but foon after, on re- 
turning to work, and expofing himfelf too 
much in the fun, he fuffered a fevere relapfe in 
the beginning of September. His complaint, 
however, yielded again to the bark, but left 
him greatly enfeebled. During the remainder 
of the month of September, he continued to 
take from % to £f s of bark every day, and re- 
turned to his work. About a week afterwards 
he was fuddenly feized with a cold fit, followed 
by a hot flags and a profufe pcrfpiration, 
which left him very weak during the apyrexia. 
His pulfe is now ico, rather hard and quick : 
he has a fevere attack every day at noon, at- 
tended with vomiting, and, during the hot fit, 
with a quick and hurried refpiration; he is hot 

and 



[ *5 3 

and reftlefs till Late in the evening, and has 
then very profufe night fweats. 

Capiat iblut. min. guttas x. ter die. 

Od. 6. The iblution did not difagree With 
him. He had a flight return of the paroxyfm 
yefterday. 

Repctatur Solutio. 

8. Has had no return of the fit, nor felt any 
fenfible effect from the medicine. He perfpired 
much at night; has great debility and languor, 
with little appetite* 

10. The fymptoms are nearly as before; he did 
not reft well, but had no return of the paroxyfm. 

Capiat opii gr. ij h. s. Repetatur Solutio. 

12 The folution was yefterday omitted; he 
relied better with the pill : in other refpects 
rinds no alteration. 

13. Had a return of the paroxyfm yefter- 
day; the cold ftage lafted half an hour, the hot 
ftage about two hours. He was much relieved 
by the opium, and fweated very profufely af- 
ter it. 

14. Had another flight fit yefterday evening, 
the cold ftage being very fhort ; he fweated much: 
does not recover his ftrength o a] petite. As 
he could not be prevailed upon to take the 
barjj again, I directed that four ounces of the 

following: 



C 14 ] 

following infufion fhould be taken three times 
a day : 

R. Corticis Angufturae Jj Cremor. Tart. 31 j Aquse 
pur. Ibifs. 

By this plan his appetice became better, and 
he regained his flrength in fome degree ; but 
in a week or ten days he relapfed into his for- 
mer Hate, having every day an ague fit, which 
was, however, relieved by two grains of opi- 
um, taken at the commencement of the cold 
ftage. He nc^ began to take the bark to the 
amount of jif s a day, which finally put a Hop 
to the ague; notwithstanding, he recovered his 
ftrength fo flowly, that it was thought neceflary, 
fix weeks afterward, to fend him to England 
for the effectual reftoration of his health. 



CASE V. 

October 14. — A. Richardfon, a black, aged 
forty years, fince her recovery from a remittent 
fever in Auguft laft, has continued in a very 
debilitated ftate, and for fome time pall; has 
been affected with an intermittent fever, the 
cold fit of which comes on daily at four o'clock, 
P. M. is very fevere, and of long duration. 

Much 



C '5 ] 

Much pain of the head, and frequent vomit- 
ing attend the hot fit, which continues the 
greateft part of the night, and is fuccecded to- 
wards morning by a flight partial fweat : fhe 
remains very weak till the commencement of 
the next paroxyfm ; her appetite is much im- 
paired ; her body open. 

Capiat folut. min. guttas x. ter die. 

1 6. Has taken the folution two days, and 
has had no appearance of the ague, except a 
little uneafinefs and yawning afyout the time of 
its ufual attack. No fenfible effect is produced 
by the medicine. 

Repctatur Solutio. 

17. Had a return of the paroxyfm yefterday; 
the cold fit was (hort, but fevere; the hot fit 
was alio violent, and terminated by a profufe 
perfpiration ; after which, however, fhe ap- 
peared more eafy and compoftd than ufual. 
She complained of no griping or naufea from 
the medicine. 

Rcpetatur Solutio. • 

24. Has had no return of the paroxyfm fince 
the 17th, nor any fymptoms of its approach. 
She continues ftill very weak, and has little ap- 
petite. 

Omittatur folut. Capiat infuf. gent. c. Jij ter die. 

18. Has had no return of the fit. She be- 

gins 



C 16 3 

gins to recover her ftrength and appetite. 

Repetatur Infuf. 

CASE VI. 

Nov. 2. — Mary Bowler, aged forty years, 
a black, has been for fix weeks affected with a 
tertian # ague ; the cold fit is fevere ; the hot fit, 
which is very violent, and attended with great 
pain of the head, generally continues all night, 
and fometimes part of the next day, without 
any fvveating ftage. She is much debilitated, 
but has a tolerable appetite. 
Capiat folut. min. guttas x. ter die. 

4. Had a return of the paroxyfm yefterday, 
after the third dofe of the folution. The fit 
returned at the ufual period, and in the fame 
manner as before. No fenfible erTe£t was pro- 
duced by the medicine. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

5. Has had no return of the cold fit fince 
the 3d; the hot fit occurred about the ufual 
time, but it was fhorter and much lefs fevere 
than ordinary. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

12. Has had no return of the paroxyfm ; me 
complains of a little griping in her bowels, and 
continues (till weak. 

Omittatur r olut. min. Capiat inf. gent. c. §ij ter die. 

I 20. Sh# 



r 'n 3 

20. She makes no complaint, and has nearly 
recovered her health and fpirits. 

Repetatur Infus. Gent. c. 



CASE VII. 

Nov. i. — E. Perth, a black, aged forty-five 
years, has been for near fix weeks paft affected 
with an irregular intermittent, which mod com- 
monly follows the tertian type. The cold fit 
is fevere, and very uncertain in the time of its 
attack and in its duration. In the hot fit (lie 
complains of exceflive pain of the head, efpe- 
cially over her eyes, and of great pain of the 
back. The hot ftage generally continues all 
night, feldom terminating by regular fweats : 
it is followed by much laflitude and uneafinefs 
through the enfuing day. Her ftrength is 
greatly impaired, her appetite bad ; and (he is 
very coftive. 

Capiat ftatim Sal. cathart. amar. |I. Cras incipiat fumere 
Sol. min. guttas x. ter die. 

6. After taking three dofes of the medicine, 
(he had a return of the paroxyfm on the 3d, 
but thought the cold fit later in its approach 
than ufual, and (horter. The hot fit continued 

Vol. VI. C throug u 



C 18 ] 

through a great part of the night, but the pain 
of the head was much lefs fevere. She has had 
no return of the paroxyfm fince, and feels only 
a little griping from the medicine. 
g^Repetatur Solutio. 

io. Has had no return of the paroxyfm fince 
the 3d. She complains only of debility and 
want of appetite. 

Omittatur Solut. Capiat Infus. Gent. c. Jj ter die. 

14. Begins to recover her ftrength ; her appe- 
tite is alfo better. 

Repetatur Infus. Gent. c. 



CASE VIII. 

Odtob. 3. — Ann Bowler, a black, aged four- 
teen years, has been, for fome weeks paft, af- 
fe&ed with an irregular tertian, which is fome- 
times, but not generally, preceded by a cold 
flage. The hot ftage continues during the 
greater part of the day, and feldom terminates 
by fweating. Her body is open ; her appetite 
much impaired. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas viii; ter die. 

10. The folution has now been taken for a 
week, during which time fhe has had no return 

of 



C '9 ] 

of the ague, nor has felt any naufea or griping 
from the medicine. No complaint remains but 
debility. 

CASE IX. 

October 4.— Dinah Lawrence, a black, aged 
forty-four years, is every other day, about fix 
o'clock P. M., feized with a fevere cold fit, fol- 
lowed by great heat and violent pain of the 
head, efpecially over the eyes, which fymptoms 
continue through the whole nigh*-, and are not 
fucceeded by any regular fweating ftage ; fhe 
is coftive, and much debilitated; fhe has had 
this complaint near three months. 

Capiat flatim Sal. cath. am. Jvi ; et eras Solut. min.guttas 
x. ter die. 

10. Has had no return of the fit fincc die be- 
gan to take the folution ; fhe finds no difagree- 
able efTed: from it : is ftill coftive. 

Repetantur Sal cathart. et Solut. min. ut antea. 

14. Feels no complaint but what proceeds 
from debility; her appetite is better; fhe was a 
little griped by the medicine. 

Omittatur Solut. min. Capiat Infus. Gent, c.^ij ter die. 

C 2 CASE 



[ io ] 



CASE X. 

Sept. 24. — Jane Armftrong, of a fair com- 
plexion, aged thirty years, is feized every day, 
at eleven o'clock A. M., with a head-ach fo vio- 
lent as to produce frequent fhrieking and 
continual moaning. The pain chiefly affedts 
the crown and one fide of the head ; it is in 
general preceded by a cold ftage, though flight, 
and of fhort duration. The hot fit, which is 
not very violent, continues till night, when 
it abates along with the pain; but is not en- 
tirely removed till morning : the paroxyfm is 
ufually terminated by a profufe perfpiration. 
The patient is naturally of a delicate conftitu- 
tion, and has of late been much reduced by 
the remittent fever, from which fhe recovered 
very flowly. 

Capiat Opii gr. iij et Tart, einet. gr. £ ingruentc pa- 
roxyfmo. 

25. The head-ach was almoft entirely re- 
moved within half an hour after taking the pill; 
the paroxyfm terminated alfo more fpeedilf 
than ufual. Being very coftive, (he was ordered 
to take half an ounce of purging fait the fol- 
lowing morning. 

26. The 



±6. The fait operated gently; (lie had a very 
violent return of head-ach at the ufual time, 
which was relieved by the opium taken alone. 

October 4. — She refufes to take the bark : 
(he has every day had a return of head-ach at 
the ufual time, which was however removed by 
the opium. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas x. ter die; et repetatur Opium 
fub initium paroxyfmi. 

10. Has had no return of the paroxyfm 
fince (he began the folution ; feels no inconve- 
nience from its ufe, but a flight diarrhoea, 
wkhout any pain. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

14. Has had no return of the head-ach ; (he 
fweats much at night ; is very weak, and has 
no appetite. 

Omittatur Solut. Capiat Infus, Cort. Anguft. Jiij ter die. 

This woman has never had a return of the 
paroxyfm, though a twelvemonth has now 
elapfed fince the laft report. She gradually reco- 
vered her ftrength by the ufe of tonic remedies. 



CASE XI. 

Sept. 1 2. — Jefle George, a black, aged twenty 
C 3 years, 



[ ** 3 

yean, was vefterctey afternoon feized with a fe- 
vere cold fit of an ague, which continued up- 
wards of two hours, and was fucceeded by great 
heat, ievere pain of the head, naufea, pains 
all over his body, more efpecially in the back 
and loins, great reftiefrnefs, and anxiety. To- 
wards morning a general but not profufe per- 
fpiration took place ; the feverity of the head- 
ach at the fame time abated, and all the other 
fymptoms wholly difappeared: he has much 
third ; his fkin is cool; his pulfe 72, and foft. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas x. ter die. 

13. He had a return of the paroxyfm lad 
night, at eight o'clock, tour hours later than 
the former one. The cold fit, ^ough very fe- 
vere, did not continue long ; the hot fit was 
ftrong; the head-ach lefs violent. He had a 
very profufe perfpiration this? morning. His 
fk'.n is now cool and moid, and his tongue clean; 
but fome pain dill remains over the orbits of the 
eyes; he complains of third, and is codive. 

Capiat Sal. c«tha-«*t. am. Ji — Repetutur Solut. min. 

14. The head-ach continued yefterday till 
the afternoon, and then went off; the falts were 
not taken till this morning. He reded well lad 
night, and makes no complaint but of debility. 

Repctatur Solutio. 

15. He 



[ 23 j 

ly **e continued free from complaint yef- 
terday, till towards evening, when he became 
hot and feverim ; and after a very uneafy night, 
he, this morning, at eight o'clock, had a fevere 
cold fit, attended with violent head-ach, which 
lafted near an hour. Two grains of opium, 
taken at this time, brought on a fweat, and ter- 
minated the paroxyfm. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

1 6. He flept well laft night, and feels no 
complaint but from debility. He has omitted 
the drops this day. 

Repetatur eras Solutio. 

17. Has had no return of the paroxyfm ; he 
feels no complaint but a flight griping from the 
folution. 

1$> Tinft. Opii et Solut. min. aa 31J m. capiat guttas xx. 
ter die. 

20. He has had no return of the paroxyfm 
fince the 15th. At that time he probably 
brought it on by having expofed himfelf the night 
before to the damp evening air in his fhirt. He 
feels no griping, or fkknefs, from the drops, 
which he ftill takes. He returned to his work 
this day. 

C 4 CASE 



[ *4 ] 



CASE XII. 

Auguft 12, 1793. — Mr. T , a Euro- 
pean, of a dark complexion, with black hair, 
was fuddenly feized, two days ago, with an 
acute pain of the head, chiefly over the orbits 
of the eyes, attended with ' naufea a:d vqmit- 
ing. Thefe fymptoms were fuon followed by 
great heat and reftlefsnefs, which continued 
through the whole night, and yielded in t e 
morning to a profufe perfpiration. On the 1 nh 
he was free from complaint ; walked about, and 
ate heartily. In the evening, however, he was 
feized with a very fcvere fhivering fit, which 
continued near f wo hours, and was fucceeded by 
great heat and reftlefsnefs, by fevere pain above 
the eyes, and bilious vomiting. He was again 
relieved in the morning by a copious perfpira- 
tion. At ten o'clock, A. M. his fkin was ftill 
hotter than natural, and his pulfe rather quick; 
in other refpects he appeared free from com- 
plaint. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas x. ter die. 

13. The firfl dofe of the folution yefterday 
produced vomiting; the fecond gave him three 

ftools; 



C *5 ] 

(tools; the laft had no particular effect. He 
paffed an eafy night, without feeling anyiymp- 
tom of the fit, except a general uneafinefs, 
which, however, foon went off. He complains 
this morning of flight pain over his forehead. 
Repetatur Solutio. 

14. The medicine again produced ficknefs, 
and a flight diarrhoea, though he only took two 
dofes of it. He remained well till two o'clock, 
P.M.; he then became very hot, and had a 
fevere return of the head-ach, attended with 
naufea and vomiting. The heat, pain, and 
reftlefsnefs continued till this morning, when a 
copious perfpiration took place, with which he 
is yet affected. 

At ten o'clock A. M. his pulfe is 130; his fkin 
pretty cool; his head-ach almoft gone; his 
tongue fomewhat furred. He complains of third, 
and of flight pain of his bowels, with a fen- 
fation of numbnefs about the umbilicus 

Omirtatur Solut. Capiat pulv. Cort. Peruv. 31 fecunda 
quaque hora. 

At fix o'clock, P. M. he has a very flight head- 
ach, with a fenfe of weight in the forehead; his 
eyes are more prominent and brighter than ufual. 
Pie has taken two dofes of bark fince noon, 
the fir It of which produced vomiting; he has 

had 



C 26 ] 

had one ftool today; his urine is very high 
coloured; pulfe 130, foft, and lefs quick than 
in the morning. 

Repetatur Cort. et capiat h. s. Tinft. Opii et Yin. An- 
tim. aa guttas xxx. 

15th. Ten o'clock, A.M — he has had a good 
night ; Come pain dill remains over his eyes, but it 
is lefs fevere; his fkin is rather hot, but moid; 
pulfe 112; his tongue dry and white ; his urine 
high coloured, with a light cloud fufpended in 
it. He complains much of thirft and fever, 
and of a pain in his back. He has taken, iince 
yefterday noon, ^if s of Peruvian bark. 
Repetantur Cortex, Tinc"t. Opii, et Vin. Antim. 

16. He pafTed an eafy night, and enjoyed fome 
refrefhing deep ; he complains only of a flight 
pain over his eyes, and is able to fit up. He had 
two ftools in the night ; his tongue is cleaner, 
but dill dry; pulfe 104 and foft, but eafily 
quickened by the lead exertion. His urine is 
not fo high coloured, and exhibits a flocculent 
cloud. He took jf s of bark between ten 
o'clock, A. M. yefterday, and fix o'clock this 
morning. 

Repetantur Cortex, Tindl. Opii, et Vin. Antim. 

17. He was much griped yefterday by drink- 
ing fome cyder; has no complaint this morn- 
ing 



[ *7 J 

ing but from weaknefs. His pulfe is 104, and 
foft ; his tongue clean and moid. His urine 
is much paler than before, and has a kind of 
gelatinous ftriated cloud fufpended in it. 

The fame medicines were repeated. 

18. He teems much better in every refpecl: ; 
his ippetite is returning; his pulfe 90, and foft. 

He continued the bark a few days longer, 
and had no return of complaint. 



CASE XIH. 

Oclober 4. — Ann a»d Eliz. Davis, blacks, 
the former five, the latter fix years old, have 
been for fome time pad affected with quotidian 
agues. The cold fit comes on at four o'clock, 
P. M. ; is very fevere, and frequently attended 
with vomiting. The hot fit ufually continues 
the whole night, being attended with great reft- 
leflhefs, anxiety, arul acute pain over the eyes; 
but is feldom fucceeded by a regular fweating 
(lage. Their appetite and ftrength are much 
impaired. 

Capiant Solut. min. guttas vj. ter die. 

9. Each of them had a return of the cold fit 

on 



on the 4th, after the third dofe of the folution. 
They have fince had no return. 
Repetatur Solutio. 

1 1 . There has not been any appearance of 
the paroxyfm, nor any difagreeable effect from 
the medicine. 



CASE XIV. 

John Oliver, a black, aged five years, who 
was affected nearly in the fame manner as the 
two laft patients, began, on the 16th of Auguft, 
to take four drops of the folution three times a 
day. 

23 . He had a return of the fit on the 1 6th, 1 7th, 
and 1 8th, but it commenced every day later, was 
lefs fevere, and of fhorter duration. Since the 
18th he has had no fit, although the folution 
was discontinued. A flight tumefaction of the 
face has been obferved for # two days paft, but 
is at prefent fubfiding. He felt no naufea or 
pain from the medicine. 



CASE 



C *9 ] 



CASE XV. 

D^c. 10. — Mary Jones, a black, aged thirty- 
fix years, about three months ago was affected 
with a remittent fever, from which (he reco- 
vered very flowly, and has fince continued in a 
(late of great debility. She has of late been 
fubjecl to violent pains in the bowels, attended 
with diarrhoea. During the laft month fhe has 
had a regular tertian ague, the cold fit of which 
begins generally at fun-fet, but is not very fe- 
vere, nor of lone continuance. The hot fit is 
long and fevere, being attended with violent 
head-ach, intenfe thirft, and great reftleflhefs. 
Thefe fymptoms are not terminated by a regular 
fweating ftage ; and have often no remiffion till 
the middle of the following day. She is feeble, 
and much emaciated. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas x. ter die ; et Opii. gr. ij. fub 
acceffionem paroxyfmi. 

12. The hot fit was much relieved by the 
opium ; the paroxyfm was fhorter, and the 
head-ach lefs fevere. She is very coftive. 
Rcpetatur Solut. min. et capiat Sai. cathart. |fs mane. 

15. Con- 



C 30 ] 

13. Continues the folution without feeling 
any fenfible effed from it. She has had no cold 
fit or head-ach during the two lafl paroxyfms. 
The hot fit was much lefs violent and of fhorter 
duration than formerly. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

18. Has had no return of the fit, nor any 

appearance of it fince the laft report ; nor does 

(he perceive any naufea or griping from the 

folution. Her appetite is (till much impaired. 

Repetatur Solutio. Capiat Inf. Cort. Anguft. |ij ter die. 

22. There has been no return of the parox- 
yfm. She finds her (trength and appetite much 
increafed by the infufion. 

The ufe of the folution was difcontinued. 



CASE XVI. 

Feb. 1. — John Jones, a European, of a fal- 
low complexion, aged twenty-eight years, is 
arTe&ed in the afternoon, every other day, with 
a violent cold fit, attended with rigors, and 
fucceeded by a regular hot fit and fweating. 
Until within a few days, he has been able to 
do his duty on (hip-board as a feaman; but 
the paroxyfm returns now with fo much violence, 
1 as 



C 3* } 

as to confine him to his hammock. He has ta- 
ken a large quantity of Peruvian bark at different 
times, which has never failed to prevent the next 
return of the paroxyfm ; he has always, how- 
ever, had a relapfe in a few days, through in- 
temperance, and expofure to the night air. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas x. ter die, 

8. Has taken the lblution without perceiving 
any fenfible effect from it. The paroxyfm re- 
turns as ufual, but, as he fays, with much lefs 
violence. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

15. The paroxyfm returns as ufual, but is 
Ihorter and le r s fevere. Through miftake, he 
has taken the folution only before the attack of 
each paroxyfm. 

Repetatur Solutio ; et capiat guttas x. ter die. 

20. He has had no return of the paroxyfm 
fince he took the folution as directed, and feels 
no naufea or griping from it. 

He continued the medicine a few days longer* 
and was reftored to perfect health. 



CASE 



[ 3> 3 



CASE XVII. 

Feb. I. — Ann Wicks, a mulatto, aged forty 
years, has been for a month pad affected, every 
other day, with a violent cold fit, attended with 
rigors, and fucceeded by great heat. She has 
alfo a fevere pain over the forehead, and on one 
fide of the head, extending to the neck and 
fhoulder of the fame fide. There is much fliff- 
nefs and pain in moving the neck during the 
intermiflion. The cold ftage commences about 
five o'clock, P. M. and continues near an hour. 
The hot fit does not terminate before morning, 
and is feldom fucceeded by a regular fweating 
ftage. She is much debilitated by the long con- 
tinuance of the complaint, and has lately given 
fuck to a young child. Her appetite is alfo 
greatly impaired. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas viij tcr die. 

4. She has had no return of the cold fit. The 
hot fit continued only part of the night, and 
was unattended with head-ach or any other dif- 
treffing fymptom. 

Rcpctatur Solutio. 

12. She 



[ 33 3 

ii. She has had no return of the paroxyfrn, 
and feels no ill effects from the foliation. Her 
ftrengrh is fomcwhat increafed, but her appetite 
is (till bad. 

Ojuittatur Solutio. Capiat Inf. Gent. c. |ifs bis die. 

CASE XVIIL 

Mrs. D. a delicate woman, of a fair com- 
plexion, ag€d twenty-four years, in the month 
of Auguft lad had a mifcarriage, from which, 
fhe recovered without much trouble, and en- 
joyed a tolerable ftate of health till the begin- 
ning of October, when ftie was feized with 
the common remittent fever of the place. From 
this complaint (he alfo recovered within a fort- 
night, by taking largely of the bark in powder 
and decoction. About the end of the month, 
however, fhe fuffered a relapfe, and made a 
very flow progrefs towards recovery; her fto~ 
mach being only able to retain the bark in the 
form of a decoction. She laboured under great 
debility, very profufe night fweats, and fre- 
quent hectic flufhings during the day, with lofs 
of appetite, and general tremors on ufing the 
lead exercife. Thefe fymptoms were at length 

Vol. VI. > D confide- 



[ 34 ] 

confiderably alleviated by the infufion of An- 
guftura bark, elixir of vitriol, and other tonics. 

Dec. 15. Yefterday, at fix o'clock, P.M. 
(he had a cold fit, with rigors, which lafted near 
half an hour, and was fucceeded by a hot 
fit, attended with great pain of the head, nau- 
fea, vomiting, and reftlefTnefs, which conti- 
nued through the whole night; towards morn- 
ing (he was relieved by a partial fweat, but re- 
mained very weak and languid. 

16. Yefterday, at the fame hour, fhe had a 
return of the paroxyfm, the fymptoms of which 
were mitigated by an opiate taken foon after its 
commencement : fhe had a copious perfpiration 
during the night, and feems free from com- 
plaint this morning. 

18. Had a return of the fit on the 16th and~ 
17th, but was relieved as before by an opiate. 
She refufes to take bark. 

Capiat Solut. rain, guttas viij. ter die. 

20. She has had no return of the cold fit fince 
the 1 8th. The hot fit w T as much fhorter and 
lefs fevere. She experiences no inconvenience 
from the medicine. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

22. She his had no return of the paroxyfm, 
but feels a flight pain in her bowels. 

Capiat ftatim Tinft. Opii guttas xx. et fp» lav. c. 3fs. 
Repetatur Solut. inin.^ 

24. The 



C 35 ] 

24. The pain of her bowels was removed by 
the opiate ; (lie has had no return of the pa- 
roxyfm ; rcfts pretty well during the night, but 
fweats much towards morning. 

Omittatur Solutio ; et capiat Infuf. Gent. c. Ji ter die. 

30. Her flrength is returning. Her appetite 
is good, and fhe has had no return of the pa- 
roxyfm. 

This lady continued to enjoy a good flate of 
health, till the 20th of March, 1793, when fhe 
was affected with a diarrhoea, attended with acute 
pain in her bowels, chiefly about the umbilicus. 
She was foon relieved from thefe complaints by 
an opiate, and a few powders, confiding of the 
Colombo root joined to an aromatic : but on the 
25th, fhe had a return of an intermittent fever, 
the cold fit of which was very fevere. It began 
at fix o'clock in the evening, continued near 
two hours, and was followed by a hot fit, which 
lafted all night, terminating towards the morn- 
ing in a flight perfpiration, and leaving her low 
and weak the remainder of the day. 

28. She refufed yeflerday to take an opiate on 

the approach of the cold fit, having on former 

occafions found her head difagreeably affected 

by it. The paroxyfm proved very fevere : the 

D 2 hot 



[ 36 ] 

hot fit. continued all night, and was fucceeded 
by partial fweats about the head and neck. She 
is very weak this morning, and complains of a 
great pain of the head and back ; of lownefs of 
fpirits and general uneafinefs. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas viij. ter die, ex Infuf. Cort. 
Anguilur. cyatho. 

30. The folution did not difagree with her in 
any refpect; (he had a cold fit lafl night, but 
it was much lefs fevere than ufual ; (he is alfo 
in better fpirits to-day. 

Repetatur Soltuio. 

April 1. There was no cold fit ycflerday ; 
but fhe had a hot fit, which continued all night, 
and terminated in a very profufe perfpiration. 
Her fpirits are much revived; fhe is confide- 
rably ftronger, and has a better appetite. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

6. She continues the folution without feeling 
any inconvenience from it; and has had no re- 
turn of the fit, or night-fweats, fince the ift: her 
appetite at prefent is good. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

8. She has had no fit, and recovers her ftrengch 
gradually. No naufea or griping has ever been 
produced by the folution. 

Omittatur Solutio. Capiat pulv. fad. colomb. gr. xv. ter 
' die. 

CASE 



r 37 ] 



CASE XIX. 



Feb. i, 1793 — Mrs.. H. of a fair complexion, 
aged twenty-four years, during the months of 
September and October lad, had two feveral 
attacks of the remittent fever, from which fhe 
recovered fpeedily by means of the bark : fince 
that time fhe has continued in a very weak irri- 
table ftate, fubjecl to pains of the bowels, and to 
frequent though flight returns of a febrile com- 
plaint, which continued only for a day or two, 
and commonly yielded to an opiate. On the 
27th of January (he had a cold fit at eight 
o'clock in the morning ; this was fucceeded, in 
about an hour, by a burning heat of the fkin, 
with flufhing of the face, great reftlefTnefs, and 
fevere pain of the forehead. Her eyes, at the 
fame time, appeared bright and prominent; (lie 
complained alfo of a fenfe of heat in them, and 
was unable to bear the light. In the evening, 
a copious perfpiration enfued, and confiderably 
alleviated the fymptoms ; fhe had, however, a 
flight head-ach through the whole night : the 



D 3 fit 



[ 33 ] 

fit has returned every morning at the fame time 
for the laft four days. 

Feb. 2. The paroxyfm appeared this morn- 
ing as ufual, with a fevere cold fit and head- 
ach, but was rendered much fhorter and lefs 
diftreiling by an opiate draught taken foon after 
its acceffion. 

Capiat Solut. min. guttas viij. ter die. 

5. She had a flight return of the cold fit this 
morning, with a little head-ach, but the pa- 
roxyfm was of fhort duration. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

6. She has had no cold fit to-day, nor any 
pain of the head ; the hot fit returned at the 
ufual time. Her face is much fluihed, and her 
fkin hot, but with lefs anxiety and reftleflnefs 
than heretofore : fhe finds no inconvenience 
from the folution. The opiate was not taken 
to-day. 

Repetatur Solutio. 

10. She has had no return of the paroxyfm, 
nor has felt the flighted fymptom of its approach 
fince the 6th ; fhe complains only of a flight pain 
or uneafinefs in her ftomach. Her appetite ftill 
continues weak. 

Omittatur Solut. min. Capiat tincl. opii guttas xx. ftatim. 

14. She begins to recover her ftrengrii and 

appetite ,• 



[ 39 ] 

appetite ; the pain of the ftomach was imme- 
diately removed by the opiate. 



All the patients whofe cafes are here related, 
have continued to enjoy good health fince cured 
by the folution ; and though feveral months 
have now elapfed, none of them have expe- 
rienced the lead unpleafant fymptom which 
could be attributed to that remedy. The women 
continued to labour under a fuppreflion of the ca» 
tamenia, until their ftrength was entirely reftored. 

Mrs. H. (Cafe XIX.) though enjoying a good 
date of health, had no appearance of them till 
the middle of Auguft laft, when they flowed 
for feveral days rather profufely. 

In Cafe IV. I had little profpect of fuccefs 
from the ufe of the folution, the child having 
become very weak and irritable by frequent re- 
lapfes : but as he had for a length of time 
taken the bark in large dofes without any effect, 
I was induced to try the mineral folution, with 
a view of checking the returns of the paroxyfm, 
hoping afterwards to complete the cure by the 
bark ; which might prove more effectual after 
its ufe had been fufpended a few days. 

D4 In 



t 40 ] 

In Cafes I. X. XIII. and XIV. there was art 
evident enlargement of the fpleen, forming a 
projection below the cartilages of the ribs. In 
Cafe X. it was fo large as to extend nearly as low 
as the crifta of the cs ilium. After the ague had 
ceafed, the patient continued to ufe corrobo- 
rant medicines, taking at the fame time fmall 
dofes of calomel, but without any fenfible effect 
on the tumor; it yet remains nearly in the fame 
irate, not, however, caufing much uneafinefs. 
In Cafes XIIT. and XIV. as the patients fpeedily 
regained their health after the ague had ceafed, 
and felt no uneafinefs from the enlargement of 
the fpleen, I did not think it proper to ufe any 
medicine, excepting a purgative dofe of calomel 
occasionally, becaufe, in many fimilar cafes, 
where this medicine had been ufed, even in 
very fmall dofes, a falivation was very foon ex- 
cited, the tumor not being at all affected by 
it, whereas the patient was rendered extremely 
weak and irritable. The only inftance of tu- 
mefaction which could with any probability be 
referred to the ufe of thefolution, was Cafe XIV. 
in which, however, it proved fo flight, as 
fcarcely to deferve notice. 

In order to give the mineral folution a fairer 
trial, I avoided, in many inftances, making 

ufe 



t 4i 3 

ufe of two very powerful means ufually em- 
ployed for the purpofe of diminifhing the vku 
lence of the paroxyfm, and which frequently 
indeed put a total flop to it ; I mean, opium 
and emetics : when two grains of opium are 
given a fhort time before the paroxyfm is 
expected, it feldom fails to bring the fit to a 
fpesdy termination by a profufe fweat ; and 
generally relieves the violent pain of the head, 
which is fo diftreiTing during the hot fit, as in 
Cafes X. and XV. The recurrence of the pa- 
roxyfm being once obviated, I have found that 
a full dofe of opium at night affords more com- 
fortable reft, and more certainty prevents the 
folution from affecting the bowels, than when 
the tincture of it is added to the mineral folu- 
tion ; a mixture of this kind always becomes 
turbid, and the opium is partly feparated. 

Intermittents partake much of the nature of 
remittents, and the two difeafes have a very 
uncertain boundary ; whenever, therefore, the 
intermiffions are imperfect and indiftinct, the 
exhibition of an emetic is attended with moil 
beneficial effects. In many inftances this prac- 
tice puts a temporary flop to the returns of the 
fit, and in every cafe coniiderably diminimes 
its violence. The proper time of giving an 

emetic 



[ 4* ] 

emetic, is about two hours before the paroxyfm 
is expected ; and the belt mode is to employ a 
folution of tartarized antimony in divided dofes, 
at intervals of eight or ten minutes, until full 
vomiting be produced. When the patient has 
vomited a few times, and his ftomach is a little 
fettled, a more moderate dofe of the antimo- 
xiial folution, joined to a full dofe of opium, 
feldom fails to produce a copious perfpiration 
before the attack of the cold fit. This method 
generally fucceeds in preventing the immediate 
recurrence of the paroxyfm : but in thofe cafes 
where the intermittent has continued long, and 
feems to return by the pewer of habit, it will 
be proper to repeat the emetic once or twice 
more before the time when the paroxyfms are 
expe&ed. 

I think it proper here to obferve, that antimo- 
nials, in the naufeating dofes in which they are 
frequently given during the remiflion or apy- 
rexia, with a view of procuring a more perfect 
folution of the difeafe, are feldom found ade- 
quate to the purpofe; on the contrary, the con- 
tinued action of fo powerful a ftimulus, in ge- 
neral, produces a correfpondent Hate of debi- 
lity, and relaxes the mufcular fibres of the fto- 
2 mach 



C 43 1 

mach fo much, that neither food nor medicine 
can be properly retained. 

The remittent fever is, in many cafes, very 
mild; whence the remiflion has often been mif- 
taken for an intermifTion. This miftake is more 
liable to be made when the remittent fever is 
preceded by an evident and fevere cold frage 
at each return of the paroxyfm, and is followed 
by a regular hot, and fvveating frage. The 
remittent may, however, be diftinguifhed from 
the intermittent fever; ift, by a flight pain 
which remains fixed in the forehead, or over 
the orbits of the eyes, during the apyrexia ; 
2dly, by the pulfe, which, though not more fre- 
quent than in health, yet retains a degree of 
quicknefs or fharpnefs through the whole of the 
remiflion ; 3dly, by the flate of the fkin, which, 
though moift, feels hotter than natural. In 
fuch cafes I have not found the mineral folution 
fo fuccefsful as in thofe where the intermifTion 
was complete ; for which reafon it feems mod 
prudent to place our fole dependance upon thrr 
bark, as in Cafes IV. and XII. Sometimes, how- 
ever, when the patient could not be prevailed 
upon to take the bark in proper dofes, I have 
found much advantage from joining it with the 
mineral folution, by which means a fmalier quan- 
tity 



C 44 ] 

tity of bark will anfvver the intended purpofe. 
But whenever immediate danger prefents itfelf, 
or is to be apprehended from a continuance of 
the fever, the bark, given in large dofes, is the 
only medicine to be depended on. 

The mineral folution ufually fails in fome 
irregular cafes, which at firft view refemble in- 
termittents, and have been improperly ranked 
with them, under the denomination of erratic 
or anomalous intermittents. A morbid increafe 
of irritability appears to be the foundation of 
thefe irregular complaints ; they affect prin- 
cipally thofe who have been debilitated by fre- 
quent attacks of fever, or by lingering difeafes ; 
alfo children; and women, more efpecially thofe 
who give fuck ; and, in general, perfons of a 
weak delicate habit. The fymptoms which 
occur in thefe complaints are nearly as follow : 
during the afternoon, or towards evening, the 
patient becomes uneafy and reftlefs ; his fkin 
feels dry, and is hotter than ufual, but with- 
out imparting the burning heat ufually obferved 
in the hot flage of intermittents; the pulfe be- 
comes quick, and rather more frequent than 
natural; a pain is fometimes felt in the head, 
either on the crown, or on the back part of it ; 
jhe thirft is feldom very great; difagreeable 

clatnmi- 



C 45 ] 

clamminefs, however, takes place in the mouth. 
Thefc fymptoms are fomctimcs preceded by 
flight chills running down the back, which, 
however, when they do occur, are not of long 
continuance, and never accompanied with vio- 
lent fhiverings. 

In this manner the patient is harrafled during 
the whole night*, but obtains relief towards 
morning, when a partial fweat fometimes ap- 
pears about the head and breaft. Excepting a 
degree of languor and debility, little or no 
complaint is felt till the return of evening- 
The duration of thefe complaints is very uncer- 
tain ; they fometimes affect the patient daily 
for one or more weeks ; at other times abate 
or difappear for a few days, and then return as 
before. Whatever increafes the irritability of 
the body, may be confidered as an occafionai 
caufe of them; but the mod common as well 
as moil powerful one is too much fatigue, 
along with expofure to a hot fun. 

In thefe cafes, after evacuating the ftomach 
and bowels by a gentle emetic or purgative, ic 
is commonly fufEcient to exhibit fome tonic, in 
a form agreeable to the patient's ftomach. The 

* Hence the denomination of night-fever. 

Peruvian 



C 46 ] 

Peruvian bark does not appear to produce any 
better effects than the other vegetable tonics, 
as Gentian, Colombo, &c. An infnfion of 
AnguHura bark is what I mod frequently em- 
ploy, and find mod ufeful, taking care to pre- 
vent the coftivenefs ariling from its ufe, by 
giving, at proper intervals, a dofe of calomel. 

For children, who cannot eafily be induced to 
take bitters, after the previous ufe of an emetic, 
a few moderate dofes of calomel are commonly 
fufticient. 

Notwithstanding the effects of arfenic appear 
to be equally as powerful and nearly as certain 
as thofe of bark in the cure of intermittent fe- 
vers, yet it muff be confelTed that perfect: 
ftrength is lefs fpeedily recovered when the cure 
has been accomplished by arfenic alone, than 
when bark has been employed. This objec- 
tion to the ufe of arfenic is of lefs confequence 
in cold climates, where, if the ague has not 
been of long (landing, the debility induced by 
it is feldom very confiderable. In tropical 
countries, however, a few attacks of an inter- 
mittent frequently reduce the patient fo much, 
that even when the paroxyfm has ceafed to re- 
turn, the extreme debility which remains, is 

of 



[ 47 1 

of itfelf fufficiently alarming to demand ever}' 
attention from the practitioner. 

It does not appear improbable that the bark 
owes its fpecific power, in the cure of remittent 
and intermittent fevers, to fome peculiar prin- 
ciple in its compofition, which has hitherto 
eluded the refearches of experimenters, and 
which they have in vain attempted to imitate 
by various combinations of bitters and aftrin- * 
gents. In whatever this peculiar power of the 
bark may confift, the fame quality appears to 
be poffeffed by the arfenic in a considerable de- 
gree. Both remedies probably effect the cure 
of intermittents, by their a&ion upon the fibres 
of the flomach, fince they often operate fpee- 
dily, and even in a fmall dofe; but the power 
of the arfenic feems to ceafe here ; whereas the 
bark is capable of reftoring tone to the fyftem 
in general. The fame effect may perhaps be 
nearly obtained by joining fome tonic medicine 
to the arfenic. With this view, in many cafes, 
after the folution had been taken a week or- ten 
days, I difcontinued its ufe, and ordered the 
patients to take the Infuf. Anguft. Infuf. Gent. c. 
&c. until their ftrength was completely reftored. 
It may be found ftill more advantageous to em- 
ploy 



C 48 ] 

ploy thefe remedies along with the mineral 10^ 
lurion. 

Arfenic feems to have been oftener employed 
as a medicine in Germany, than in any other 
part of Europe ; but chiefly by the empirical 
clafs of practitioners, which no doubt pre- 
vented its introduction into general ufe. Many 
eminent phyficians in Germany, as well as 
eifewhere, have, however, fpoken highly in 
its favour, and occafionally prefcribed it. Like 
many other active remedies, it has been much 
abufed by the bold and the ignorant, and has 
been given in dofes which no man of prudence 
would venture to direct ; efpecially as we know 
that the fame good effects may be obtained by 
moderate dofes of it, and without the leafl rifk. 
The following obfervatiens, extracted from a 
German work *, will (how how extenfively this 
medicine has been ufed on the Continent, and how 
little caution has been obferved in its exhibition. 

Dr. Slevogt, ProfeiTbr of Anatomy at Jena, 
in 1 700, recommended the ufe of arfenic, ex- 
tolling it as the bed, mott certain, and fafeft 
cure of intermittents, efpecially of tertians and 
quartans. He employed it in dofes of a grain 

* Nicolai Recepten und Kurarten. 8vo. Jena, 1780. 

or 



C 49 j 

or a grain and a half mixed with a proper quan- 
tity of Theriaca; not only giving it on the days 
of the apyrexia, but alfo a (ho it time before 
the accefhon of each paroxyfm. He aliens, 
that in fifty inftances, two or three dofes were 
fufficient to put a total (lop to the difeafe, and 
tha he never obferved the lead ill effecl from it. 

Melchior Friccius* recommends arfenic in 
intermittents, and declares he has ufed many 
drachms of it in the cure of fuch fevers; but 
coafefTes that he had often met with relapfes 
afterwards. 

Lanzonus -f quotes a letter from Valifnieri to 
one of his friends, written in 1707, in which he 
fays the French furgeons were accuftomed to cure 
long-continued intermittents with a fmall quan- 
tity of arfenic : and he adds, that their remedy 
feemed to refemble much the famous aqua del 
petefino, which was a ftrong folution of arfenic 
boiled in a copper vefTel J. 

* De Virtute Venenorum medicn. 8vo. Ulmse, 1701.— 
See alfo London Medical Journal, Vol. VII. p. 194. 

f Lanzoni Oper. omn. med. phyf. 4to. Lauf. 1738. 
Tom. I. p. 68. 

j The Aqua del/a Toffanina (fo called from the 
inventor), Aquctta di NapoU, Poudrc de SucceJJion y Eau Mi* 
rail, Sec. were preparations of arfenic frequently ufed as 
poifons during the lait centurv. 

Vol. VI. E Keil 




0) 5° 



3 

Keil : ' r pwtifts arfenic as a certain and fafis 
ipecific in intermittents, when prepared and 
adminiftered in the following manner : half an 
ounce 'of white arfenic, finely powdered, is to 
be put into a glafs, op tea-cup ; half an ounce 
of diftilled vinegar is then to be added, and 
evaporated over the fire, being conftantly ftir- 
red at the fame time with a wooden fpatula; 
the fame quantity of vinegar is again to be ad- 
jded and evaporated in like manner. After this 
procefs has been repeated fix times, the refidu- 
um is finally to be warned with warm water 4 
and dried ; a drachm of the dry powder is to 
be made up into, fixty pills by means of a fcru- 
ple of wafers foftened with water. Previously 
to the ufe of the pills, the patient is to take 
an emetic compefed of tart. emet. or fulph. 
aurat. antim. and a little vitriolated tartar, or 
fome purgative medicine on the morning free 
from fever : the next day, or only a few hours 
before the acceilion of the paroxyfm, one of 
the pills is to be taken fading, and nothing is to 
be eaten or drank after it for three or four hours. 
When this has been repeated three days, du- 
ring the apyrexia, or a few hours before the 

* Anatom. Chirurg. Medicin. Hiuidbuchleiii. 8vo. Ko* 
nigfberg, 1761. 

z attack 



C 51 ] 

attack of the paroxyfm, the fever commonly 
ceafcs. He affirms that this practice has been 
attended with fuccefs in feveral hundred cafes, 
when every other remedy had been employed in 
vain ; that he has never obferved the lead ill effect 
to accrue from it; but, on the contrary, that 
thofe who had before looked thin and ill, had 
become, in confequence of it, fat and ilrong ; 
and that he knew many perfons who had ufed this 
remedy fifteen or twenty years before, and who 
continued to enjoy a ftate of perfect health. 

Dr. Jacobi * recommends the ufe of arfenic 
ftrongly in fevers : he directs one part of arfenic 
and twelve of fait of tartar, to be mixed with 
180 parts of water, and boiled till one half 
has evaporated ; when cold, as much frefh 
water is to be added to it as has been loft by 
the evaporation, together with a little fpirit of 
wine. The dofe for adults is twenty-five 
drops, to be given on the day which is free, 
from fever, at feven A. M., at three, fix, 
and nine, P.M. Before the ufe of this me- 
dicine, the prima? vise muft be evacuated by- 
emetics and purgatives ; and the common febri* 

* De prudenti ufu Arfenici, fale Alcalico domiti, interno 
falutari, Diflert.—Vide A&. Acad. Elefti Mogunt. Tom. I. 
f % 216. 8ro. Erford. 1751. 

E 2, fuge 



C 5* 3 

fuge remedies mould be ufed for fome time. Df„ 
Jacobi obferves that he has employed the above 
preparation not only in intermittents, but alio in 
continued fevers, with the greateit. fuccefs, and 
without ever experiencing any bad effects from it. 
Heuermann * fays that arfenic is ufed in Hol- 
ftein, at Copenhagen, and fome other places, 
as the mofl certain remedy for the cure of in- 
termittents ; that he has himfelf given it with 
conftant fuccefs, in fevers, to patients who were 
not able to retain other medicines on the fto- 
mach in a proper quantity ; and that two cafes, 
wherein frequent relapfes had occurred, were 
entirely cured by this remedy. He prepares a 
folution of arfenic in the following manner: 
half an ounce of white arfenic, and fix ounces 
of alkaline fait, are added to Ibifs of water, 
and then evaporated to drynefs. The fame 
quantity of water is added a fecond time to 
the refiduum, and evaporated to one half, 
which is coloured red by a few poppies. Of 
this he directs from feven to ten drops to be 
taken during the day, beginning immediately 
after the paroxyfm is over, and omitting it a, 
fhort time before the return of the next. If the 

* Vcrmifchte Bemerkungen undUnterfuchungcn. Vol.,1. 
Sro. Copenhagen, 1765. 

folution 



- [ 53 J 

fohuion produces vomiting, it is too flrong, 
and mud be diluted ; only one dofe is to be 
given in twenty-four hours, and the patient 
mull be kept moderately warm, to promote a 
gentle perfpiration. Expofure to cold, he fays, 
is as hurtful during the ufe of this as of other 
febrifuge remedies, as it difturbs Nature in her 
operations, and retains in the body the noxious 
matters which fhe is endeavouring to expel. 
If in the firfl: three or four days after the ufe of 
thefe drops, the fever does not ceafe, he re- 
commends that the fame dofe mould be repeated 
twice a day, which commonly proves fufficient. 
The ill confequences which have been obferved 
after the ufe of arfenic, as palfy, trembling of 
the limbs, blindnefs, deafnefs, &c. he afcribes 
to the improper preparation and imprudent ufe 
of it; afferting, that it is a fofe remedy when 
properly prepared. 

In the Ephemerid. Acad. Nat. Curiof.* arfenic 
is alfo celebrated as an infallible fpecific for in- 
termittents. Three or four grains of powdered 
white arfenic are directed to be put into a fmalt 
uncovered glafs with a proper quantity of water, 
and placed upon the fire till a fokuion takes 
place, when it is to be well (lirred up and 
given to the patient : the fever, we are in- 

* Dec. II. Ann. III. p. 132. 

E 3 formed, 



L 54 3 

formed, is by this means certainly prevented 
from returning. The patient mould eat nothing 
for twelve hours before ; but a quarter of an 
hour after having taken the medicine, he is 
allowed a gill of warm water, in which a quan- 
tity of butter is diiiblved, together with the 
yolk of an egg ; after which, nothing more is 
to be given for feme hours. There generally 
follows a confiderable degree of uneafinefs, and 
a profufe fweat ; and by thefe means, it is faid, 
every intermittent, even a quartan, may be rea- 
dily cured. Two other formulas are given in 
the fame work*, and recommended as highly 
ufeful in the cure of intermittents, viz. 

]J. Tart. crud. ji. Arfen. cryft. jfs. Pip. long. |fs. Lap. 
pruncll. 3ifs. Specif, febrifug. Crollii 3iij. M. 

The dofe is from gr. v. to gfs. 
The other is 

1^. Arfen. alb. gr. v. Lap. prunell. vel Nitri depur. 
gr. xv. M. pro una don*. 

Profeflbr Ackermann-f* relates, that in Paufa, 
a town of Saxony, a furgeon's family had 
been pofTeiTed for more than a century of a 
fecret remedy againft melancholy, which con- 
fided of two grains of arfenic mixed with a 
drachm or more of white fugar, to be taken 

* Dec. II. Ann. V. p. 474. 

-j- Neues Magazin fur Aerzte. Vol. II. p. 401. 8vo. 
Leipfic, 1780, 

early 



[ 55 ] 

early in the morning, along with a large quan- 
tity of mucilaginous dink. The medicine 
produced a violent vomiting, fo as to agitate 
the whole body, which continued not kfs than 
fix hours ; after this, he obferves, the patient 
ufunlly enjoyed a quiet fleep, and became more 
rational. The remedy was periifted in, care be- 
ing taken that the effects of the fir ft dofe (houlcl. 
be completely over before a feeond one was 
adminiftered. Many repetitions of the medi- 
cine were not however requiiite, as the difeafe, 
in general, foon yields to this mode of treat- 
ment ; the patient was afterwards directed to 
continue a mucilaginous diet for a few weeks. 
ProfefTor Ackermann examined fome of the 
patients who had been cured by the furgeon at 
Paufa, and found that no ill effects had arifen in 
confequence of it. The fame perfon, it is added, 
employed arfenic very frequently for the cure of 
mtermittents ; he difiblved two grains of ar- 
fenic in a pint of water, and gave two, or 
three table fpoonfuls for a dofe every day ; 
under this treatment the fever feldom recurred 
more than twice; but he remarked that the 
patients were longer in recovering their fcrength 
than when the bark had been ufed. 

ProfefTor Ackermann farther obferves, that 
another furgeon in the fame place likewife 
E 4 employed 

I 



[ 56 3 

employed arfenic with great fuccefs; he gave fif- 
teen drops of a folution of arfenic in water, along 
with alkaline fait, but the ProfefTor had not been 
able to afcertain the exact proportions. A dofe 
was ordered to be taken as loon as the patient 
felt the approach of the fir, and a quantity of 
warm tea was to be drank immediately afterwards. 
This produced a vomiting, which was encou- 
raged as much as poiTible by repeated draughts 
of the tea. In this manner, it feems, he had 
cured many obftinate agues by two or three dofes 
of the folution; and, amongft others, a quartan 
which had continued upwards of two years. 



From fome of the foregoing narratives, ar- 
fenic feems to have been ufed with as little pre- 
caution as emetic tartar; and fince it appears, 
on good authority, not to have been productive 
of bad confequences, even in very large dofes, 
we may be induced to lay afide that extreme 
anxiety with which we generally prefcribe it ; 
and may be encouraged to perfift in the ufe of a 
remedy which, when prudently adminiftered, 
is both fafe and efficacious. 

Many of our mod active and approved me- 
dicines, as preparations of mercury and anti- 
mony, the fquili, foxglove, &o, are capable 

of 



r 57 ] 

6f producing as violent effects in the conditio 
tion, when given in too large a dofe, as arienic 
itfelf. All thefe medicines met with the fame, 
if not ftronger, oppofition when firft introduced, 
as arfenic does from many at prefent. It is 
well known that antimonial preparations were 
declared to be poifonous, and that the ufe of 
them was prohibited by a decree of the faculty of 
Phytic at Paris in the year 1566 ; which decree 
-was not repealed till 1637. We fhall ceafe, how- 
ever, to wonder at the prejudices formerly en- 
tertained againft thefe medicines, when we 
confider, that even at the prefent day timilar 
objections are made upon the Continent, efpe- 
cially in Germany, to the ufe of the bark, a 
remedy, the reputation of which has been fo 
fully eftabiimcd by the united teftimony of fo 
many eminent practitioners, fupported by al- 
moft. innumerable experiments. 

Mr. Theden, one of the mofl celebrated fur- 
geons in Germany, and Surgeon General to the 
Prutiian army, in fpeakingof the treatment of 
intermittents, obferves*, that when his patients 
had previously enjoyed a healthy ftate of body, 
he was generally able to effect a cure in fix or 

* Unterricht fUr die Unterwundarztc. 8vo. Berlin, 1793. 

eight 



C 53 ] 

eight weeks. As he entertained the common 
idea that bark is apt to produce obftructions and 
enlargement of the vifeera, (Edematous fwel- 
lings of the extremities, &c. he cautiouily 
avoided giving this remedy until he had tried 
every other means. During the fir ft three 
weeks he employed different medicines, with a 
view to loofen the morbific matter, and to ren- 
der it fit for expulfion from the body; he then 
gave two ounces of bark, in dofes of half a 
drachm, every two hours. After an interval 
of eight days, during which only bitters were 
prefcribed, he ventured again to exhibit an 
ounce of the bark, and thus completed a cure. 
He cautions us againft the ufe of bark whilfl 
the face retains a yellow tinge, or whilfl: the 
febrile matter remains in the conftitution ; he 
conRrTes, at the fame time, that he has leen 
oedematous fwellings of the lower extremities 
after agues where no bark had been employed. 
Dr. Vogel* is iikewife of opinion that many 
cache&ic difcafes, particularly obitruclions of 
the vifcera, dropfy, jaundice, phthifis, tympa- 
nitis, coughs, afthma, hetnicranium, deafnefs, 
cataract, vertigo, 8rc. are frequently the con- 

* Handbuch der prakdfehen ArzneywiffeDfchaft* 8vo. 
Stetfdal, 1781. 

fcquences 



C 59 1 

fequences of an improper treatment of inter- 
mittents; more efpecially when the cure has 
been attempted by aftringents, arfenic, Sec. or 
even by an unfeafonable exhibition of the Pe- 
ruvian bark, whiUt the morbific matter ftill 
remains in the fyftem. 

The objections to the ufe of thefe medicines 
are fo vague, ihat they appear to originate from 
popular prejudice and ill-grounded theories, 
rather than from anyjuft practical deductions; 
they will therefore have little weight with thofe 
who are not contented with bare aflertions, but 
make actual obfervation and experience the 
ftandards of truth. 

Having frequently found the mod beneficial 
effects from the mineral folution, and having 
never obferved any ill confequences to arife from 
its ufe, I may prefume to recommend a trial of 
it to furgeons practifing in warm climates, and 
particularly upon the coaft of Africa. 

The high price of bark may fometimes pre- 
vent furgeons of fhips from laying in, at their 
own expence, fuch a (lock of this valuable 
medicine as will enable them to employ it freely 
in eve; v cafe which requires its ufe. For not- 
withstanding the frequent complaints of feveral 
refpcdtable furgeons in the navv, the quantity 

of 



[ 6o ] 

of bark allowed by government to (hips on 
foreign ftations, is much too fmall; and mofl 
of the merchant mips trading to this coaft arc 
ftill more inefficiently provided. 

Of the two mod frequent difeafes upon the 
coaft of Africa, the remittent and intermittent 
fever, it is certain that the latter, though lefs 
rapid in its courfe, and apparently lefs dange- 
rous than the former, yet for the mofl: part oc- 
cafions that irremediable injury to the constitu- 
tion, which fo often befalls Europeans trading 
upon this coaft. There are few, even of thofe 
who are faid to be feafoned to the climate by 
long refidence, who have not fuffered feverely 
from repeated attacks of intermittents. This 
in a great meafure arifes from the unhealthy 
Situation in which they live for the convenience 
of trade. They generally fix their refidence on 
the banks of fome river, or narrow creek, whofe 
oozy mores, furrounded by mangroves, and ex- 
cluded from the wholefome breezes, area conftant 
fource of miafmata and contagion ; to this muft 
be added the debauched and irregular courfe of 
life which moft of them lead. Though fea- 
foned to the climate, as they fuppofe, their 
unhealthy fallow complexions and emaciated 
bodies,, the frequent hedtic flufhings of the 

face. 



[ 6i ] 

face, • fwelled legs, &c. attended with obflruc- 
tions and enlargement of the abdominal vifcera, 
fufficiently indicate to every obferver the fhat- 
tded ftate of their conftitutions. The ague 
probably ftill continues to return once a month 
or oftener, and harraffes them a few days, 
without being much noticed ; for the feverity 
of the difeafe feems to be confiderably abated 
by its frequent recurrence, though its bad ef- 
fects in the end are equally certain. As their 
appetite during the intermifiion is frequently 
keen, and even voracious, they flatter them- 
felves that the conftirution is not impaired by 
frequent returns of the difeafe ; many alfo are 
negligent, from a confidence in the popular 
prejudice, that a cold fit fhovvs the abfence of 
danger. 

In thefe cafes, therefore, when the bark can- 
not be procured, or, as more frequently hap- 
pens, when the patient has conceived a difgufl 
for it, and cannot be prevailed upon to take it 
in a fufricient quantity, the mineral folution 
promifcs to be a fafe and effectual fubftitute 
for it. 



During the laft rainy feafon I have had fre- 
quent 



[ 6z ] 

€|uent opportunities of exhibiting the mineral 
folution in intermittents with the fame good 
effects as in the preceding year. Out of the 
number of cafes which occurred in the prefent 
feafon, I have felected the two following, as 
being the only inftances of quartans I have met 
with fincc I began to ufe the mineral folution. 



CASE XX. 

Sept. 1 1, 1793. — John Thompfon, a mulatto, 
aged thirty years, was feized, about two months 
ago, with an ague, which returned every fecond 
day. After the fecond paroxyfm he took an 
emetic, and foon after the operation of this, an 
opiate, which appeared to put a flop to the dif- 
eafe. A month ago he was again feized with 
cold fhiverings, followed by an increafe of heat, 
which terminated by a prof ufe fweat. The fit 
now returns every fourth day; the cold flage of 
which, commencing about noon, is very fe- 
vere : the hot ftage continues through the 
whole night, with violent head-ach, and to- 
wards morning is relieved by a profufe fweat- 

ing. 



[ 63 ] 

ing. His appetite is pretty good ; his bocl^- 

open. 

Capiat Vefp. Anrim. Tartar, gr. ij. cu. P. Ipcc.;c. 9j. 
Cras incipiat fiunere Sol. min. guttas xij. ter die. 

10. The emetic operated well. He took the 
folution regularly for four days, and then omit- 
ted it, finding no return of his complaint. 

30. He has had no return of the paroxyfm, 
nor has taken any medicine fmce he left off the 
folution. 



CASE XXI. 

Sept. 3. — Anne Crankepoor, a black, aged 
twenty- eight years, has every fourth day, at 
noon, a fevere cold fit of the ague, which 
continues near two hours, and is attended with 
violent rigors and pains of her bones ; thefe 
fymptoms are followed by a hot ftage of long 
continuance, but which terminates by profufe 
fweating. She is affected, during the whole 
paroxyfm, with violent pain of the head, 
ftomach, and back, which alfo continue 
through the intermiffion, though with fome 
abatement. She has taken an emetic and 
two anodyne draughts without any relief; and 
£ / has 



I 64 ] 

has had no ftool for eight days. Her head-ach 
is at prefent very fevere ; her pulfe quick and 
frequent ; her fkin hot and dry. 

Capiat ftatim Camphor, gr. x. Tinct. Opii, guttas xxr, 

Aq. font. ^fs. et eras mane Sal. cathart. amar. ^ifs. 

part, vicib. 

9. She fweated profufely with the draught, 
and is much eafier this morning. Her head- 
ach is confiderably relieved ; her pulfe foft and 
regular. Both doles of the Sal. cath. amarus 
produced vomiting. 

Capiat ftatim Ol. Ricini Ji. — Repetatur Hauflus h. s. 

10. She could not ycfterday retain the oil 
on her ftomach, nor has yet had a ftool. She 
parTed an eafy night, and feels no complaint 
this morning, excepting great languor and laf- 
fitude, with a fenfe of weight and fulnefs in the 
abdomen. 

Capiat ftatim Calom. gr. v. Extr. Cathart. £)j. 

11. The pills operated gently three times; 
her bowels are much eafier ; fhe feels a flight 
pain of the head and general uneafinefs, as if 
the fit was approaching. 

Incipiat eras fumere Solut. min. guttas x. tcr die. 

13. The fit returned on the 1 ith at the ufual 
time with great violence. The pain of her 
head and ftomach was alfo very fevere ; fhe yet 

feels 



[ *S ] 

feels fome pain of her ftomach, with great 
reftlefTnefs and uneafinefs. The folution has 
not been taken till this day. 

17. The paroxyfm returned at the ufual 
time on the 14th, when (he was affected with 
very fevere head-ach and pains of the ftomach 
and back, which ftill continue, being accom- 
panied with great languor* She has taken 
only five dofes of the folution fince the 13th, 
and thofe not at regular times. She was very 
coftive on the 15th, when (he took 

Calom. gr. v. c. Extr. Cathart. gr. xv. 

which operated twice. She expects the pa- 
roxyfm to-day. 
Repetatur Solutio. 

18. The paroxyfm did not return yefterday, 
until fix P. M. ; the cold ftage was very fevere, 
and attended with great pain of the ftomach 
and head; but thefe fymptoms were much re- 
lieved by two grains of opium. She fweated 
profufely during the night, and feels a flight 
head-ach and pain of the ftomach this morn- 
ing, with languor and debility. Her body is 
open ; her pulfe natural. 

Repetatur Solutio. Sumantur Opii gr. ij. urg. dolor* 
Ventriculi. 

20. She continues ftill weak and languid ; 
Vol. VI. F the 



[ 66 ] 

the pain of her ftomach was wholly removed 
by the opiate. 

Rcpctatur Solutio. 

23. She has had no return of the paroxyfm 

fince the 17th, and makes no complaint but 

of debility ; (he is, however, able to walk 

about, and her appetite is fomewhat better. 

Omittatur Solut. min. Capiat Infus, Corticis Anguft. |iij 

ter die. 

Early in October (lie had entirely recovered 
her health and itrength. 



XL An Account of the good Effects of a Solution 
of Sal Ammoniac, in l r inegar, employed, as a 
topical Application, in Cafes of lacerated Wounds. 
By Mr. Henry Yates Carter, Surgeon at Ket- 
tley, near Wellington, in Shropjhire. 

IN the fecond volume of Medical Facts and 
Obfervations*, I took occasion to mention, 
in a curfory manner, the good effects I had ex- 
perienced, in lacerated wounds, from a folu- 
tion of fal ammoniac in vegetable acid, em- 

* P. 14. 

ployed 



C 67 ] 

ployed as a topical application; and which, in 
fuch cafes, I obferved, had feemed to promote 
the union of the parts and to moderate the dis- 
charge. As this mode of treatment is very 
different from that commonly in ufe, and [ 
have had occafion to try it in many cafes of bad 
compound fracture, and other kcerated wounds, 
in which there has been a tendency to fphace- 
lus, I have been induced to make it the fubject 
of a difrindt paper, and for this purpofe have 
felected the following cafes, from a greater 
number, in which I have ufed it ; and thefe, I 
hope, may be deemed fufficiently interefling 
to procure their infertion in a future volume of 
the valuable collection above referred to. 



CASE I. 



A poor man, named Ingram, aged upwards 
of eighty years, received an injury on his right 
foot, from a carriage palling over and lacera- 
ting it from the inftep to the toes. The wound 
had been neglected for fome days, when I was 
requeued by a benevolent gentleman in the 
neighbourhood to vifit him, and found the foot 
F 2 fphace- 



C 68 3 

fphacelated as high as the ancle, and the in- 
flammation apparently extending ftill farther. 

I began with fcarifying different parts of the 
foot, by which means I gave vent to a confide- 
rable quantity of acrid ichor. The whole foot 
was then well covered with lint, continued to 
fome diftance above the difeafe, and directed 
to be kept conftantly wet with a mixture com- 
pofed of half an ounce of crude fal ammoniac 
diflblved in a pint of vinegar. Internally he 
took the bark in fubftance, liberal^, with 
opium, as he had a difpofkion to diarrhoea. 

On the fecond day after this mode of treat- 
ment had been adopted, I had the fatisfaction 
to find that the inflammation had not fenflbly 
increafed, and that the patient felt at intervals 
a throbbing, but which, he faid, was not pain- 
ful, about the ancles. His pulfe, which had 
been much quicker, was now at ioo. 

On the fixth day, a vifible feparation of the 
morbid parts was difcoverable, and matter was 
perceptible on the verge of the feparating parts; 
a fluctuation was felt in feverai parts of the 
foot, particularly beneath thoie places that had 
been fcarified; and upon making deeper inci- 
fions here, we difcovered a collection of good 
pus and granulations of new flefh. In the 

courfc 



C 69 ] 

courfe of a fortnight, the floughs, having 
previoufly become loofe, were gradually taken 
away, and the parts expofed one clear uniform 
wound. After this the bark was adminiftered 
lefs frequently, but the ufe of the lotion was 
continued till the wound was nearly heated, 
which happened in about two months. 



CASE II. 

A girl, aged nineteen years, was attacked by a 
maftiff, and had the mufcles of the thigh and leg, 
particularly the vaftus externus and gaftrocnemius 
fo Violently lacerated, that the worfl confe- 
quences were to be expected from the circula- 
tion being cut off in the large vefTels from the 
extremity, notwithftanding which fhe loft little 
or no blood ; a circumftance, by the bye, that 
frequently occurs in lacerated wounds. She 
fuffcrcd but little pain, although the feparated 
mufcles of the upper part appeared to be much 
irritated. The large portions of mufcle yet 
adhering were cautiouily replaced as near their 
original fituation as the nature of the cafe 
would admit ; and after the parts had been well 
F 3 bathed 



[ 70 ] 

bathed with warm vinegar, and due proportions 
of lint applied round the limb, the whole was 
encompaffed with a broad roller, applied merely 
tight enough to retain the dreflings ; the limb 
was then laid in an horizontal pofition, and the 
preirure taken from the affected part by means 
of a pillow placed under the lower part of the 
leg, confiderably below the injury. The whole 
was then wet with a lotion compofed of half 
an ounce of crude fal ammoniac diflbived in a 
pint of vinegar, and ordered to be kept fo con- 
ftantly. 

The firfl day (lie was but little fenfible of the 
application. At night a draught, containing 
twenty drops of laudanum, was given, and fhe 
refted well. 

On the fecond day I found her pulfe but lit- 
tle quickened, and her thirft moderate ; fhe 
had pei feci: feeling in every part of the limb, 
and complained of an acute fmarting in the 
wound upon every renewal of the lotion, 
which continued for a few minutes, and then 
fhe became eafy. An opening draught was 
given this morning, and fhe repeated the opiate 
at night. 

On the third day matter feemed to be form- 

ing, 



C v 3 

ing, but there was no appearance of inflam- 
mation or (welling of the limb. 

On the fifth day from the receipt of the in- 
jury, the bandage was carefully removed, and 
I had the facisfaclion to find that the mufcles 
had united, and that the parts of the bone 
that had been laid bare were covered with new 
flefh. The difcharge was kindly, and in mo- 
derate quantity, and the limb was free from 
pain. The fame mode of drefiing and the 
fame applications were continued without alte- 
ration during three weeks, at the end of which 
time the cure was complete. 



CASE III. 

A young man, aged nineteen years, by a 
fall of coal in the pit while he was {looping, 
was prefTed to the ground, and had his thigh 
broke about four fingers breadth above the pa- 
tella. The upper pare of the bone was forced 
through the mufcles and into the ground, fo 
that the hollow of the bone was filled with 
dirt, and dripped bare nearly four inches, and 
the mufcles much lacerated. In this fituation 
F 4 he 



C 7* 3 

he was brought home, (about a mile) and I 
then favv him ; the wound bled but little. 

In this cafe I determined to try the effect of 
keeping the limb gently extended, nearl\ at its 
original length, after taking off fo much of 
the bone as I fhould find requifite to a complete 
and exact reduction and to get above the 
coal flack which had been introduced. 

As the bone was fhivered longitudinally, I 
found it necefTary to take off about three inches 
of it. This being done, and the wound well 
cleanfed with warm vinegar and a fmall pro- 
portion of fpirit of wine, I placed the lower 
part of the limb as exa&ly parallel to the other 
as poflible, and retained it in that pofition by 
means of proper bolfters on each fide of the limb. 
An eighteen-tailed bandage having been pre* 
vioufly laid under the part, the dreffing was 
made by gently filling the vacancy (the whole 
fide of the leg externally being open) with foft 
pledgets of lint dipped in the fame folution as 
that ufed in the preceding cafe, and the ban- 
dage was then applied as gently as poflible, in 
order to prevent the flefh from being preffed 
into the part that the bone ought to have occu- 
pied ; and a fplint applied externally on each 
fide, merely to give more fteadinefs to the 
i limb, 



C 73 ] 

limb, but without occafioning much pre fib re". 
I think it right to mention alfo that the mid- 
dle tails of the bandnge were cut fmallcr than 
the others, and applied in iuch a manner that 
the wound might be uncovered, in order that 
the lotion might he applied immediately to the 
wound, without difturbing any other part. 

He was let blood, and twenty-five drops of 
tincture of opium were given at night, and the 
attendant was ftri&ly enjoined to keep the part 
constantly wet with the folution, except only 
du ing the intervals of ileep. 

Upon vifiting him the morning after the ac- 
cident, 1 found he had had but little fieep, 
though his limb had given him but little pain, 
except for about a quarter of an hour after the 
application of the lotion, after which he faid 
he had felt the whole leg and foot become fen- 
fibiy warmer. The lower part of the limb lay 
Tery fteady, exa&ly in the fituation in which it 
had been placed; he took this morning three 
grains of calomel, which procured one (tool. 

On the fifth day, including the day of the 
receipt of the injury, (there having been fome 
appearance of matter between the folds of the 
bandage) the dreflings were wholly removed, 
and the wound was found covered with a welJ- 

concoded 



C 74 ] 

concocted pus in mode-ate quantity, and witk 
new granulations* The dreffings were conti- 
nued in the fame manner as before, the whole 
vacancy being carefully rilled with doffils of 
lint, made as foft as poffible, till the whole 
was level with the fkin ; and over thefe the 
bandage was applied as before. He continued 
to repeat the opiate every night, and the calo- 
mel occasionally; his appetite was tolerably 
good, he ufed nearly the fame diet as when in 
health, and was permitted to drink a fmall 
quantity of ale. 

On the eighth day the dreffings were again 
removed, and the appearances continued to be 
favourable. From this time, the weather being 
warm, the wound was drefTed every day in the 
fame manner as at firtt; and in about eight 
weeks the callus was completely formed, and 
had filled up the void fpace, and the wound 
was reduced to about a quarter of an inch in 
diameter. 

In ten weeks he came down (lairs, and went 
about on crutches ; and in about fixteen weeks 
from the time he received the injury, he went 
with a ftick only, and was able to walk nearly 
two miles. The limb was not quite an inch 
{hotter than the other; the fmall ulcer conti- 
nued 



[ IS J 

nued ro difcharge, till a considerable exfoliation 
of bone, which gradually made its way out- 
wards, was extracted, after which the wound 
ibon healed. 



CASE IV. 

A boy, aged about fifteen years, had the 
misfortune to flip his hand under the axletree 
of a water- wheel, which moves at about the dif- 
tance of two inches and a half from a brick 
wall or buitrefs fup porting another building; 
his arm was taken in to the elbow, and the 
machine performed feveral revolutions on the 
part before he could be extricated. The flefh 
was dripped down on each fide of the thick 
part of the arm, and the thumb was nearly 
fe par a ted ; but the fingers and hand had fuf- 
fered but little, and there was no haemorrhage. 
The thumb was not taken off, but carefully re- 
placed, as well as the other mufcular parts that 
had been feparared ; and to the whole wound a 
large quantity of lint was applied, wet with the 
folution of fal ammoniac in vinegar. . He took 
twenty drops of tin&ure of opium at night, 

but 



C 76 ] 

but he was very reftlefe, and complained much 
of his arm. 

Second day. The arm had bled in the night, 
and the dreflings were become fliff and hard, 
which rendered it neceffay to remove them. 
The difturbance this o:cafioned produced a de- 
gree of inflammation which, I believe, might 
otherwife have bven prevented, and which 
proved the fource of misfortune. The parts 
from this time became exceffively painful, and 
the inflammation extended to the upper part 
of the arm, and to the fhoulder and fide, as far 
down as the pectoral mufcle. He was coftive 
and feverifh, and complained much of thirfl. 
The whole arm was wrapped in a cataplafm 
made of oatmeal, with equal parts of vinegar 
and water ; and three grains of calomel were 
immediately given. Two ftools were procured 
by this medicine; but the pains ftill continued 
to be very diflretfing to him. His pulfe was 
at 100. 

Third day. The above fymptoms continued; 
the pulfe was increafed to no; and he was at 
times delirious ; the upper parts of the arm, 
ihoulder, and fide, were become of a dark 
red colour, and were exceedingly tenfe. He 
had feveral loofe flools ; the arms and fide were 

drefTed 



C 77 3 

■drefled as before, with the addition, in the li- 

• 

quid of which the poultice was made, of half 
an ounce of crude fal ammoniac, and an ounce 
of fpirit of turpentine. He took half a drachm 
of Peruvian bark, with fifteen drops of tinc- 
ture of opium, every third hour; and care was 
taken to dift.il fome of the folutida between the 
dreffings, upon the ihouklcr, very often, in 
iuch a manner that it might make its way to 
the affected parts. 

Fourth day. I found the whole fore arm, 
from the elbow, completely fphacelated and 
dry ; but the moulder and fide were nearly 
in the fame (late as yefterday, the inflammation 
not having increafed; his purging had ceafed ; 
he was net fo thirfty, and his pulfe was at ioo; 
but he complained much of head-ach and wea- 
rinefs. Nonvithftanding there appeared fome 
reafon to conclude that his head-ach might, in 
fome meafure, be occafioned by the quantity 
of opium he had taken, I continued the ufe of 
it in the fame dofes ; a (tool was procured by 
means of a clyiTer. The ufe of the lotion was 
continued. 

Fiftjj day. The fymptoms were nearly the 
fame as yefterday. The fame drefTIngs and 
medicines were continued. 

Sixth 



C 7S ] 

, Sixth day. The pain and tendon were much 
leffeiKd he had reded tol ably well, and was 
fice from third; the Moulder and fide, with a 
coniider.ble parr of the upper arm, feemed 
approaching to their natural colour, and the 
extent of inflammation- was vifibly decreafing. 
The bark was ftill continued, but without the 
tincture of opium, inftead of which he took 
two grains of purified opium at night. 

The cataplafm was continued as before for 
about a week, from this time, when the moulder 
and fide having recovered their original tone, 
it was changed for one compofed of oatmeal 
and the folution alone. In a fevr days matter 
formed plentifully round the bone in thofe parts 
where the lacerations had been deep, and large 
portions of the mufcles were cautioufly removed. 
The matter formed was of a good confidence, 
and moderare in quantity ; and the wound was 
perfectly eafy, except ng only upon the appli- 
cation of the lotion, and for fome fhort time 
after. The whole hand dropped off at the 
wrid ; the other parts gradually filled up with 
good flelli, and are now completely healed. 



CASE 



[ 79 ] 



CASE V. 

A man, aged thirty-fix years, by the fall of 
a very heavy iron rod perpendicularly upon 
his foot, upon that part where the {hoe is ge- 
nerally buckled, received a confiderable lace- 
rated wound, b) which the tendons were much 
injured, and the integuments and mufcular flefh 
were dripped off from the upper part of the 
tarfus, and hung in a large loofe flap down the 
fide of the foot. The wound bled considera- 
bly, and the whole foot, from the violence of 
the blow, was infenfible. The parts were well 
clean fed from the grumous blood with vinegar 
and water, with a fmail quantity of fpirit of 
wine, and the loofe flap replaced in the fituation 
from which it had been torn, and drefTed with 
pledgets of lint dipped in the folution; and a 
cataplafm applied of oatmeal and vinegar. 

The morning after the injury, upon removing 
the drefiings, the wound and whole foot were 
found to have a favourable appearance; but at 
night he began to complain of a great degree 
of heat, throbbing, and fenfe of teniion. 

On 



[ 8° J 

On the third day, on removing the dreflings, 
the whole upper part of the foot appeared to 
be haftily approaching to a fphacelated ftate. 
It had loft all fenfibility to the touch, and the 
inflammation had incrcafed, t Hough in fo fhort 
a time, confiderably above the ancle, and to the 
extremity of the toes. A fenfation of burn- 
ing heat in the whole foot and leg (till conti- 
nued. The parts that were loofe were now re- 
moved, and the wound, after having been 
bathed a confiderable time with a mixture of 
warm vinegar and water, with a fmall quantity 
of fal ammoniac previously diflblved in it, was 
drefled as ufual, the lint being firft well fatu~~ 
rated with the lotion ; and over the whole a ca- 
taplafm was applied as before. A purgative 
medicine, compofed of four grains of calomel, 
and five grains of aloes, was given, which ope- 
rated well. He pafTed this day with fomewhat 
more eafe, and at night took thirty drops of 
tincture of opium. 

Fourth day. He complained of having 
palled a very reftlefs night, and that the pain- 
ful fenfation of burning heat 'Hill continued ; 
the inflammation went on increafing ; his pulfe 
was at 97, and he had much third and flufhing 
heat. Bark, in the quantity of half a drachm, 

was 



C 81 ] 

was given every third hour, and twenty drops 
of tincture of opium every fixth hour* The 
fame dreflings were continued, with the poul- 
tice ; but at night the poultice was omitted, 
and the dreflings kept wet with the folution 
alone. 

Fifth day. He had reded much better; his 
third was more tolerable, and the heat and 
other fymptoms were much more moderate ; his 
pulfe was at 90; the inflammation had not in- 
creafed; and the tenfion about the ancle was 
leffened. The fame medicines and local appli- 
cations were continued as laft night. On renew- 
ing the dreflings in the evening, he complained of 
having paffed a very painful afternoon, and that 
the fenfe of heat had been greater. He attri- 
buted all this to the omiflion of the poultice, 
which was now, at his earned requeft, renewed. 

Sixth day. In the morning the fymptoms 
were much increafed, and the inflammation was 
fpreading, with a violent degree of pain and 
tenfion, the whole upper part of the foot being 
in a fphacelated date* and the patient com- 
plained of exceflive pain. The fame dreflings 
as before were applied, but without the poul- 
tice, after bathing the parts with warm vine- 
gar; a broad roller, for the convenience of 

Yol. VI. G keep- 



[ 8z ] 

keeping the parts wet, was gently applied over 
all the inflamed parts ; and as I had a fuf- 
picion that the increafe of his pain, <kc. yefter- 
day, if not wholly, was, in a great meafure, 
owing rather to a want of due care in keep- 
ing the parts conllantlv moid, and thus fuffer- 
ing them to get dry and hard, than to any ef- 
fect the application could have in producing 
thofe fymptoms, I paid this day a particular 
attention to this circumftance, by vifiting him 
flvera! times, to fee that the folution was duly 
applied ; and in a few hours the fymptcms of 
pain and heat in the whole limb were greatly 
diminifhed, and continued gradually *to abate 
the whole day His pulfe at night was at 93. 

Seventh day. The fymptoms were nearly , 
the fame as yefterday; the inflammation, upon 
the whole, was rather lefs, but there was no ap- 
pearance of matter. He had paffed a tolerable 
night; but his pulfe was ftill at 93. As he was 
coflive, the purgative medicine was repeated. 

Eighth day. He had pail a good night, 
-comparatively fpeaking; the pain in the upper 
part of the limb (or above the difeafe) was 
confiderably leflened, and the inflammation 
was much left ; a frnall quantity of matter ap- 
peared upon the edges of the lacerated pans; 
1 his 



C 83 ] 

his pulfe was at 90. He began to complain of 
fevere fmarting upon the renewal of the lotion, 
and at times infilled on its application being de- 
ferred to longer intervals, though when the parts 
began to grow dry, the heat and fenfe of ftric- 
ture were conftantly renewed. 

Ninth day. He had paiTeu a reftlefs and 
painful night ; his foot and leg were in much 
pain at intervals, but (exclusive of the fmart- 
ing pain for a quarter of agptour upon the lo- 
tion being applied) he always became much 
eafier after the wetting of the parts, which took 
place once in about two hours, unlefs fleep 
intervened. 

From this time the ufe of the lotion was 
continued in the fame manner as before, and 
he continued alfo to perfevere in the ufe of ths 
bark and opium ; the Houghs feparated kindly ; 
the inflammation went off from the leg and 
toes, and a feparation of the difeafed parts took 
place at a very little diflance from the edges of 
the original injury. The wound difcharged a 
well-formed matter, and as the parts beneath 
fome of the thicken; Houghs granulated, the 
latter gradually came away without much pain, 
and the whole was healed in ten weeks, ex- 
cept a very fmall ulcer upon the lower part 
G 2 of 



£ 3 4 ] 

of the Tarfus, through which a fmall exfolia- 
tion made its way. 



As in the preceding cafes I was careful to obvi- 
ate the effects of irritation, by keeping the bowels 
moderately open, giving occafionally, and fome- 
times liberally, of opium; and invigorating 
the fyftem by means of wine and the Peruvian 
bark ; it may perhaps be fuggefted, by fome 
readers, that the favourable termination of the 
cafes I have been relating was due rather to the 
internal than external remedies employed ; and 
that to fubject to a fair and decifive trial this or 
any other remedy, no other (hould be employed 
at the fame time. This is indeed what I have 
done in ilighter cafes of laceration, where local 
applications only were requifite ; and in all fuch 
cafes the union of the parts has appeared to 
me to be much more fpeedily effected by means 
of the lotion, than it is by the ordinary mode 
of treatment. And I am able to recoiled: no 
inftance of bad compound fracture, or of la- 
cerated wounds, attended with or threatening 
fphacelus, where the warm fomentations and 
caiaplafms commonly employed in fuch cafe* 

wert 



[ 85 3 

were made ufc of, in which there was any fuch 
obvioufly good effect from the local treatment, 
as in the cafes I have been defcribing; not- 
withftanding there was the fame liberal ufe of 
opium and Peruvian bark, &c. internally. On 
the contrary, I have but too often feen the 
word effects from fuch cataplafms, &c. ; and in 
one of the above cafes, (Cafe V.), the bad ef- 
fects of a poultice, applied at the earneft re- 
queft of the patient, were very linking, when 
contracted with the relief he afterwards expe- 
rienced from the ufe of the lotion. 



III. Cafe of a difeafed Kidney. By the fame. 

A SEAMAN, forty years old, of a pletho- 
ric habit, applied to me at Port Royal, 
in Jamaica, in 1782, with complaints nearly as 
follow : * 

A conftant aching, and fometimes acute pain, 

about the region of the right kidney, attended 

with a numbnefs of that fide, and pricking 

G 3 pains 



C 86 ] 

pains along the urethra, particularly when he 
palled his urine ; frequent inclination to make 
water, fofnetimes without ability to void any, 
and never voiding it hue in fmall quantiry ; the 
urine itfelf being h:gn coloured, depofiting a 
gritry lateritious fediment, fmelling very fbong, 
and rorming a film on its fur face, whith ap- 
proached to a yellow colour. He complained 
likewife of a fenfe of fulnefs and heat at the 
neck of the bladder and about the perineum, 
and could get but little reft in any other than an 
horizontal pofture. He was coftive, and had 
frequent naufea. 

As he had a full pulfe, ten ounces of blood 
were taken from the arm, and a purging 
draught was adminiftered; after which he took 
occafional dofes or a mixture, the principal 
ingredients of which were diuretic fait and 
tincture of opium. 

In the courfe of two or three, days his pain 
was much alleviated, but the difficuly with 
which he voided his urine ftill cont'nu: d. 

He now complained of frequent and painful 
erections, more efpecially when an inclination 
to make water came on ; he had likewife pro- 
fufe colliquative fvveats, and was colli ve. 

Care was taken to obviate this difpofition to 

coilive- 



C s 7 ] 

coftivenefs, by means of purgative medicines 
and clyfters. Opium was now more liberally 
adminiflered, and recourfe was occafionally had ■ 
to the warm bath. This laft produced a certain 
degree of eafe while he remained in it, but the 
fenfe of flricture about the neck of the bladder 
continued, and the quantity of urine he was 
able to void feemed every day to become lefs, 
fo that at the end of a fortnight it was deemed 
neceflary to make ufe of the catheter, as he 
was unable to pafs a fingle drop of urine with- 
out it. 

By means of this inftrument, from four to 
fix ounces of turbid urine were drawn off twice 
a day. He had now much fever, and the pain 
about the neck of the bladder was become very 
acute, and feemed to affect him fpafmodicaliy, 
as well after as previoufly to the introduction of 
the catheter. He was likewife frequently feized 
with violent pain, which began in his mould- 
ers, and proceeded along the right fide to the 
hip. 

About a month after the firft ufe of the ca- 
theter, he complained of a pain in the urethra, 
near the feat of the proflate gland, particu- 
larly when the inftrument was palling; and 
G 4 at 



[ 88 1 

at times the catheter feemed to meet with fome 
refiftance at that part. 

From this circumftance, together with the con- 
tinuance of the pain in that and the neighbour- 
ing parts, and the frequent difcharge of drops 
of a mucous confiftence from the urethra, we 
were inclined to think that the principal feat of 
the difeafe was in the proftate gland, (efpeci- 
ally as no appearance of calculus had been ob- 
ferved), when a ftvfh let of fymptoms directed 
our attention more particularly to the right 
kidney. 

Thefe fymptoms conlifted in a pain about 
the region of that kidney which he had before 
fcarcely mentioned, but which now (about 
feven weeks a;ter he firft made his complaints 
Jcnown) was, at tiirus, very fevere. His 
moulders alfo, but particularly the right, were 
fore, and at intervals acutely painful; the in- 
guinal and axillary glands became fvvelled, and 
fore to the touch ; and he complained frequently 
of a fenfe of coluntfs in the dire&ion of the 
right ureter, which was fucceeded by a painful- 
inclination to make water. 

From thefe circumftances it was fufpedted 
that the right kidney, if not the chief fource 
of the extraordinary fymptoms I have been 

defcribing^ 



[ «9 3 

defcribing, had at lead differed confidcrably. 
He was therefore urged to recoiled: any exter- 
nal injury he might have received. After a 
little hefitation he informed us, that about a 
month previouflv to his firft applying for relief, 
he had received leveral violent blows from the 
end of a large rope acrofs his loins, which for 
fome time had given him confiderable uneafi- 
nefs. In the courfe of a few days, however, 
he faid, the pain had gone off, but had re- 
turned at intervals ; and as ■ he had fuffered 
much, at different times, from gravel, he 
had afcribed his prefent complaints to that 
caufe. 

At the time he made known thefe particu- 
lars, he was in a very reduced condition ; his 
fromach was become fo extremely irritable, 
that it retained but little of what was given 
to him either of food or medicine; and about 
a week afrervvards he died. 

On diffeclion the urethra was found to be in 
a healthy flate, but the proftate gland was a 
little enlarged. The bladder contained about 
eight ounces of turbid urine, mixed with a pu- 
rulent fluid, very offenfive to the fmell. The 
right ureter was much enlarged, and filled 
with the fame kind of fcetid matter. The kid- 
ney 



C 90 ] 

ncy on the fame fide was enlarged nearly to 
thrice its natural flze, and on being opened 
was found to be in a date of fuppura*ion, and 
to contain a conquerable quantity of foetid pus, 
io that the internal fubftance of the kidney was 
in a great meafure deflroyed. 

There was no appearance of calculus; and 
the other kidney, as well as the reft of the 
abdominal vifcera, appeared to be in a natural 
ftate. 



Tt may be doubted, perhaps, whether the 
affection of the kidney, in this cafe, ought 
folely to be attributed to the effects of the blows 
that were inflicted ; but allowing the kidney to 
have been previously d'feafed (and the com- 
plaints the patient had already experienced, 
and which he attributed to gravel, render it not 
improbable that it was fo); ftiil there can, I 
think, be no doubt that the fuppurative proceis 
which took place was haftened, if not immedi- 
ately occafioned, by external violence. And 
cf fuppuration of the kidnies from external in- 
jury, in any refpect fimilar to the prefect, I 
have been able to meet with no example in 
books. Different fyflematic writers do indeed 

enume- 



C 9' J 

enumerate external contufion among the remote 
caufes of" nephritis, but I do not find, in any of 
them, an inftance of fuch an affection from fuch 
a fource; fo that I flatter myfelf the cafe I 
have related will be thought worthy of being 
recorded. 

It mows that a frequent inclination, without 
ability, to make water, is not always occafioned 
by gravel or calculous concretions ; and it af- 
fords a (hiking inftance of the influence an 
organ like the kidney may have upon parts not 
only contiguous to, but even remote from the 
feat of difeafe. 



IV. Cafe of a Gun-Shot Wound of the Head. By 
the fame. 



A HESS I AN grenadier, aged between 
thirty and forty years, being one of a 
detachment fent to reduce a fort on the banks of 

the 



C 9* ] 

the Delawar, in the a£t of levelling his piece, 
received a ball (grape (hot) on that part of the 
os frontis which forms the external canthus of 
the eye. The ball making its paflage through 
the head, came out under and rather behind 
the oppofite ear, as in the annexed plate*. 

What were the immediate effects upon the 
receipt of the injury I am not able to fay, 
not being immediately upon the fpot; but 
he appeared, when brought to the regimental 
hofpital, to have a perfect recollection of 
every circumftance that had occurred to him, 
except only for a fliort time after he fell. He 
complained of little pain, and did not ap- 
pear to have loft fo much blood as might have 
been expedted. 

The ball being a fpent one, had much fplin- 
tered the cranium, both at its entrance and 
exit ; and was found in the folds of his coat 
collar. 

The wounds being cleanfed, and the fplin- 
ters of bone removed, as far as was prac- 
ticable, from about the external parts, fuitable 

* See Plate T. Fig. i. in which a refers to the entrance of 
the ball, and b to the part where it paffed out. 

drefling* 




\ '-:*•>■• 







[ 93 ] 

dre flings vvere applied; and his pnlfe being 
full, he was let blood ; after which he took 
twenty-five drops of tindture of opium. The 
next day he had a fenfe of heavinefs over his 
eyes, and obferved that objects did not appear 
to him fo brilliant as ufual; towards the even- 
ing he complained of naufea and third. He 
took tart.' vitriol, and antim. diapk. ad gr. xii 
every third hour, and a clyfter was adminiftered. 
On the third day he complained of pain of his 
head, accompanied with drowfinefs ; and, at in- 
tervals, of a weaknefs of his extremities. As the 
tlyfters had failed to procure a fufficient difcharge 
of faeces, he was directed to take three grains of 
calomel and fifteen grains of powder of jalap, 
which operated well, and procured an allevia- 
tion of the fymptoms juft now mentioned. 
His eyes were but flightly inflamed, and he 
complained of but little pain in that on the af- 
fecled fide. 

On the 6th day there was a good difcharge 
of matter from the wound, and clears began to 
feparate in pretty large Houghs. From this time 
he rented tolerably well without the ufe of the 
opiate, which till now had been repeated at bed- 
time. Splinters of bone, that had been driven 
in at the fuperior wound by the ball, came 

away 



C 94 ] 

away from the dependent orifice at almoft every 
<h effing (which was twice a day) for feveral 
days. The naufea, head-ach, weaknefs of his 
limbs, third, and every fymptom of fever, 
gradually vanifhed ; the fuperior orifice filled 
up with new granulations, and cicatrized firmly ; 
and in about ten weeks there remained nothing 
more neceffary than a fuperficial drefling to the 
inferior opening near the ear. 

I did not fee this man after he had actually 
left off every application to the affected part ; 
but from the condition of the wound, and the 
patient's health and vigour, I have not any room 
to doubt, that in a few days, after I laft faw 
him, he was capable of returning to his duty. 



On reflecting on this extraordinary injury* 
(inafmuch as it was not a mortal one) I am in- 
clined to think, that as the ball, though a large 
one, entered low down upon the orbit, and 
near the external part of the eye, it miffed the 
os planum and frontal finufes, and consequently 
that branch of nerves that paffes through them ; 
fo that, judging from its apparent direction, it 
mud have injured part of the os ethmoides, 
near the fepturn nafi. To this courfe of the 

ball, 



[ 95 ] 

ball, and the favourable fituation of the de- 
pendent, orifice, the favourable event of the 
cafe was probably owing ; for though he com- 
plained at certain periods of a lenfc of weight 
upon the upper and fore part of the head, ge- 
neral weakres of his limbs, and lofs of fight, 
fvmn: >ms indicating an opprefiion of the brain, 
yet upon opening the wound, and giving vent to 
the matter, which was in feme meafure confine_d 
by the dreffings, thofe fymptoms gradually va- 
nished, and the patient always became perfectly 
eafy after the application, for a few minutes, of 
a warm fomentation. 

An inftance of a bail entering under the 
right eye, and pafTing obliquely through the 
cerebrum and cranium above the right ear, 
without hurting the eye or fight, is recorded 
by Heifter in his Medical, Chirurgical, and 
Anatomical Cafes and Obfervations, page 7 
(of the Englilh tranflation) Obf. VII. 



V. An 



C ] 



V. An Account of fome extraordinary Symptoms 
which were apparently connected with certain 
morbid Alterations about the Feins and Nerves. 
Communicated in a Letter to Dr. Simmons by 
Mr. John Pearfon, Surgeon of the Lock Hqf 
pitaly and of the Public Dijpenjary. 

MRS. P. aged fifty-one years, of Miles' 
Lane, Cannon Street, began to fuffef 
from a peculiar uneafinefs at the inner part of 
her left leg, about feventeen years ago, when 
fhe was in the third month of her fecond preg- 
nancy. The fkin which covered the particular 
feat of her complaint, retained its natural co- 
lour; but there was a circular induration, of 
about half an inch in diameter, very little 
elevated above the fnrface, which was exqui- 
fitely painful when ilightly touched or com- 
preffed ; this morbid part was fituated in the 
courfe of the vena faphena major, and was 
about fix inches above the joint of the ancle. 
Befides the acute pain which was produced by 
inadvertently touching this little tumour, 
Mrs. P. commonly fuffered feveral paroxyfms 

of 



C 97 ] 

of pain every day; each of thefe attacks was 
accompanied with an increafed rednefs, and a 
fenfible elevation cf the indurated part, the 
pain at the fame time extending to the knee, 
and often darting to the ftomach ; the duration 
of the fit was about twenty minutes; it was at- 
tended with flight convulfive motions of diffe- 
rent parts of the body, and frequently termi- 
nated with flatulent eructations. Thefe fits of 
pain did not recur ar any regular periods ; fo 
that the number which (lie underwent in the 
courfc of a day was various and uncertain ; for 
a difordered flate of the flomach, or a fudoen 
perturbation of mind would at any time excite 
one of the paroxyfms. She alfo had obferved, 
that the feverity of her fufterings was invariably 
increafed during the peiiods of menftruation 
and of pregnancy ; and that in the latter months 
of gefbtion, the duration of each recurrence 
of pain was extended to an hour and a half. 
But although this difeafe was uniformly aggra- 
vated by certain alterations in the ftate of the 
uterus, yet it continued with undiminished fe- 
verity after Mrs. P. had ceafed to bear chil- 
dren; for when her youngeft child was more 
than fix years old, flie had not experienced any 
abatement of her daily fufferings. About thir- 
Vol. VI. H teen 



C 98 3 

» 

teen years ago, I advifed her to have the mor- 
bid part removed ; but at that time fhe was un- 
willing to undergo an operation ; fhe however 
fubmitted to various methods of treatment, 
under the direction of different medical gen- 
tlemen, but without obtaining any relief. 

In the month of April, 1793, Dr. Lowder,- 
who had been long acquainted with the circum- 
ftances of this painful complaint, informed 
Mrs. P. of the fuccefs which had attended the 
removal of a fimilar tumour, by the applica- 
tion of a cauftic. She read the hiftory of the 
cafe, which is publifhed in the third volume 
of the Memoirs of the Medical Society of Lon- 
don, and very foon determined to feek relief 
from the fame mode of treatment. 

Accordingly, on the 22d of April, I applied 
the lapis infernalis to the morbid part ; (lie en- 
dured the moft excruciating tortures during fe- 
veral minutes after its application ; but the pain 
gradually diminifned with the fenlibility of the 
part, lb that in about twenty minutes the efchar 
was completely formed, and (he then felt no 
more pain than what is the ufual confequencc 
of a cauftic applied to any part of the body. 
From this day fhe never experienced the recur- 
rence of a fingle paroxyfm of pain ; the efchar 
2 exfoliated 



C 99 ] 

exfoliated in about twelve days; and on the 
7th of June the fore was perfectly healed. 



As the preceding hiftory contains fome cu- 
rious and rather uncommon circumftances, I 
beg leave to offer a few obfervations upon fome 
of them. The indurated part having been de- 
ftroyed by a cauftic, it was not in my power to 
examine its internal ftrudlure, fo -as to difcover 
the true nature of the morbid alteration. I af- 
certained, however, that a portion of the vena 
faphena major, and that branch of the crural 
nerve which accompanies it in its courfe dowr* 
the inlide of the leg, were completely included 
within this tumour. This fact was clearly de- 
monftrated. after the exfoliation of the efchar ; 
for I then faw a portion of the vein hanging 
down at the fuperior part of the fore, and the 
naked nerve in contact with it ; and on touch- 
ing the nerve with my probe, Mrs. P. inflantly 
complained of an acutely painful fenfation, 
fimilar to that which (he had been accuftomed 
to feel before the tumour was removed. I then 
deftroyed that part of the nerve which was ex- 
pofed with lunar cauftic, and my patient fuf- 
fered no more uneafinefs. After thus proving 
H 2 that 




^Si« OF THE 

that a vein, and a confiderable ramification of 
a nerve, were contained within the difeafed 
parr, I proceed to obferve, that the paroxyfms 
of pain were excited by every thing that acce- 
lerated or otherwife difturbed the circulation of 
the blood ; whether applied to the induration, 
or affecting the general fyftem ; as all (trong 
exerti'ons of the mufcles, external impulfe, or 
mental commotion. The afcent of the blood, 
in the veins of the lower extremities, is necef- 
farily impeded in the {late of pregnancy; and 
during this period, the fits of pain were always 
fhirper, and were alfo of longer duration ; and 
at the time of parturition, when the aclion of 
the heart and blood-veffels. is confiderably in- 
creafed, Mrs. P. fuffered exceedingly; for, to 
ufe her own expreffion, Ihe " had all her labour 
pains in her leg." 

It is alfo highly probable, that the portion 
of vein which paffed through the tumour was 
unufually diflended with blood at the time of 
the paroxylm ; for upon thefe occafions, the 
morbid furface became redder than common ; 
and the tumour was fenfibly elevated. We may 
therefore, perhaps, venture to conclude, that the 
vein and the nerve being confined within a fub- 
ilance that could not be eafily diftended, when- 
V ever 



r "I ] 

ever the vein became preternattirally turgid, the 
nerve was compreffed between* its paiietes and 
the internal furface of the induration; and that 
confequently the fymptoms were connected with 
this flate of the part. I do not fuppofe that it 
will be neceflary for me to undertake a proof 
in detail, that a certain degree of preffure upon 
a nerve will produce pain, fpafms, and con- 
vulfions ; it may be fufficient for my purpofe 
to refer to a few of the many instances which 
are recorded in medical books. In the fourth 
volume of the Edinburgh Medical Effays, 
Dr. Short has related the hiitory of an epilepfy, 
which was caufed by the prefTure of a hard 
caitilaginous fubftance upon a nerve ; he cured 
his patient by removing the tumour, and di- 
viding the nerve. Guattani, in his Treatife 
de extemis Aneuryjmatibus, (Hilt. XX.) has 
recorded a cafe in which violent fpafms were 
occasioned by the preiTure of an aneurifm 
upon a nerve. In the EfTays and Cbferva- 
tions Phyilcal and Literary, Vol. III., the 
late Sir John Pringle has published a Cafe, 
where a tumour formed by extravafated blood, 
by preffing upon the intercoftal nerves, pro- 
duced pain, irritation, . and perhaps a hic- 
H 3 cup, 



[ loi ] 

cup, which could not be flopped*. I do not 
intend to deduce any general conclufion from a 
particular inftance ; for although the remarka- 
ble fymptoms which occurred in Mrs. P.'s cafe, 
were connected with a morbid ftate of a vein 
and a nerve ; yet as no account has been pub- 
limed of the internal ftructure of parts which 
have been affected by a fimilar complaint, it 
would be improper to conclude, that every in- 
ftance of local morbid fenfibility, accompanied 
with convulfive motions and pain, mufl depend 
upon fuch a peculiar condition of the fufTering 
parts. I have indeed fcen another cafe, very 
much refembling that of Mrs. P.'s, in which 
there is a fmall exquifitely fenfible induration 

* Forinftances of convulfive motions, and even epilepfy, 
produced by local difeafcs about fome of the extremities, 
or that were cured by the removal of matter, carious bone, 
or fome portion of the integuments, confult Willis de Mor- 
tis ConvulJ. ; Riverius de Epikpjia ; Schenckii Q'j/ervat. 
(Lib. de Eftlepfia.) ; Foreflus de Cerebri Morbis, Lib. X. 
Obf. 67 ; Petri Borclli Hijior. & Obfervat. medico phyjica- 
rum, Cent. II. Obf. 95. Job. Rhodii Obferv. Med, Cent. I. ; 
Tuipii Obferv. Med. Lib. IV. Cap. 2 j Boneti Sepul? 
thretuTBi Lib. I. Seel. 13; Van Swieten Comment, in 
Aph. H. Boerhaave, Tom. III. § 1075. Haller Ele- 
7ncnta Fhyfiolog':<c, Tom. IV. § 30. Simfon on the Vi- 
tal and Animal Actions, Eflay I. ch. 3. 

at 



[ I0 3 ] 

at the pofterior part of the leg, near the be- 
ginning of the tendo achillis, from which the pa- 
tient fufrers acutely whenever it is touched. She 
has occafional paroxyfms of pain, but they re- 
turn at uncertain intervals ; and (he thinks that 
they grow milder. In this inflance, as in that 
recorded by Dr. Biflet *, the tumour becomes 
uneafy in rainy and windy weather; but it does 
not appear that the difeafe had ever any con- 
nexion with pregnancy. I fufpect that the 
tumour, which I have juft now mentioned, may 
be connected with the vena faphena minor, 
and that confequently it may include or com- 
prefs a fmall branch of the fciatic nerve ; but 
as I could not render the cutaneous veins of 
the leg turgid by moderate p refill re, its exact 
fituation was not afcertained -j% 

* Memoirs of the Medical Society of London, Vol. III. 
Art. VI. 

f The firft volume of M. Pouteau's pofthumous works 
contains a very curious hiitory of a difeafe which he there 
calls cancerous ; whether properly or no I (hall not inquire ; 
but as it refembles Mrs. P.'s cafe in fome of its characters, 
I fliall take the liberty of prcfenting an abftract of it : 

" On voyoit a la partie bade du Sternum une furfacc 

" ovale de largeur d'un ecu de lix livres dans fon petit dia- 

H 4 " metre, 



In the early part of the laft Spring, a young 
married woman applied to meat the Public Dif- 
penfary, complaining of pain and lamenefs of the 
right arm. She Lheived me a tumour of a pale 
red colour, and of about the fize of a filberd, 

" metre, fans elevation, fans rougeur, fans engorgement 
* circonvoiiin. La peau feulement qui la recouvroit etoit 
" un pcu moins nette, que par tout ailleurs, mais femblable 
" a la feniitive qui paroit craindre la main qui l'approche. 
u Cette portion des tegumens auroit fait reflentir les plus 
" vives douleur?, (i le doigt, fans la toucher, en eut ap- 
" proche avec trop de celerite. Le moindie infec"te, un 
" fetu que le hafard auroit fait pofer deifus, eufTent aufli- 
'* tot rappelle les convulfions. Les retours de ces convul- 
" fions etoient periodiqucs, fe montrant a fept heures & 
" demie precifes du foir. Dans le plus grand calme, on ne 
" les attendoit que de deux jours Tun ; & a la moindre agita- 
iC tion, les mouvemens convuliifs etoient journaliers. Leur 
u duree etoit de deux htures, & meme plus." The hif- 
tory prefents us with many other extraordinary circuit 
fiances; but it may be fufficient at this time to add, that 
M. Pouteau made a crucial incifion in this morbidly fenfi- 
ble part, which afforded an immediate although but a tem- 
porary fufpcniion of the pain and convulfions. He then 
extirpated the portion of difcaled integuments ; but as the 
young lady was not perft&ly relieved by this operation, he 
finally completed the cure by burning a cylinder of cotton 
upon the part. Vide Oeuvres pofibumes de M. Pouttap. y 
Tom. I. ch, i. 

which 



[ i°5 ] 

which was fituared in the courfe of the vena 
mediana bafilica, at the bend of the arm : this 
morbid part was conftantly uncafy; but when 
it was preffed or handled, fhe complained of 
acute pain, which extended along the upper 
arm, and produced flight convulfive motions 
in the mufcles. She derived no advantage from 
mild difcuticnt and emollient applications ; 
but her pain increaftd fo much, that her health 
became injured, and (lie was at length confined 
to her bed. On vifiting her at home, I found 
the tumour unaltered in its appearance, except- 
ing a ipontaneous feparation of the cuticle from 
its furface ; fhe was in conftanu pain ; the unea- 
finefs not only proceeding along the upper arm, 
but alio to the neck, and affecting the breaft and 
mufcles on the right fide. Ilerpulfe was feeble, 
but not too frequent ; the complained of a great 
fenfe of weaknefs, and convulfive motions were 
excited in the mufcles of the upper arm, neck, 
and thorax, on that fide, by the gentled exa- 
mination of the morbid part- I ordered a large 
veficatory to be applied on the inner part of 
the fore arm, and directed her to take ten 
grains of pidvis ipecacuanha compofitus, when- 
ever her pain mould be unufually feverc. She 
foon derived ccnfiderable relief from this mode 

of 



C 106 ] 

of treatment : the bliftering plafter was repeated 
twice during my attendance ; the tumour gra- 
dually became lefs painful, and diminifhed in 
bulk ; and in about a month it had entirely dif- 
appeared. It was not more than three weeks 
after me was difmifled, when me applied to mc 
again, on account of a tumour very much re- 
Fembling the former one, which was fitimed 
at the bend of the arm, in the courfe of the 
vena cephalica ; fo that a portion of the 
vein evidently paffed through, or, rather, was 
included within the center of the morbid part. 
The pain and morbid irritability affedted the 
fame parts as before, but in a much inferior de- 
gree. I directed a mode of treatment fimilar 
to that which had been'employed on the former 
occafion, and it was attended with equal fuc- 
cefs. 

This young woman had fome fymptoms 
which indicated a difeafed ftate of the lungs; 
"and (lie occafionally fpat blood : but fhe had not 
been formerly fubjecl to any particular com- 
plaints; (lie menflruated regularly; and had 
never been pregnant. I cannot affign any pro- 
bable caufe for the appearance of fo fingular a 
complaint as that which I have now defcribed ; 
but fome of the effedts which took place would 

perhaps 



C *°7 ] 

perhaps admit of an explanation, if it could be 
proved that a fmall ramification of a nerve, as 
well as a portion of a vein, were included within 
each of the tumours. That this was actually the 
cafe is highly probable, becaufe the cutaneous 
nerve diftributes feveral of its branches in the 
vicinity of the vena mediana bafilica ; and fmall 
fibrils belonging to the mufculo-cutaneous nerve, 
are commonly feen near the veca cephalica, and 
the vena mediana cephalica ; fo that tumours 
fituated at the bend of the arm, and in the 
courfe of thefe blood vefTels, mull: be almoft ne- 
ceffarily in contact with one or more branches 
belonging to the internal, or external cutaneous 
nerves *. 

The late Profeflor Camper, in a valuable work 
entitled Demonjlrationum Anatom : co-Patbologicarum Liber 
primus continens Brachii humani Fabricam et Morbos, has 
given a very diiUnct view of the mode in which thefe 
fmall branches of nerves are diftributed at the bend of the 
arm ; and his engravings are accompanied with fome good 
practical obfervations. Mr. Abernethy alfo publifhed two 
engravings, laft year, in the fecond part of his Surgical and 
Phyfiological EfTays, in which the courfe of thefe nerves 
is very neatly and correctly delineated : and the efTay to 
which they are annexed, contain* many ufeful remarks 
M on the ill confequences fometimes fucceedin^ to venae- 
f feftion." 

I beg 



C 108 ] 

I beg leave to refer it to the intelligent reader, 
how far the following account of a difeafe of 
the fubcutaneous nerves, as defcribed by Pro- 
feflbr Camper in the work already referred to, 
bears any refemblance to the preceding hiftories. 

" Non raro in nervis cutaneis tubercula par- 
" va ac dura obfervantur, quae vera ganglia 
" funt, pifi magnitudinem licet non excedant ; 
" dies tamen noclefque acutiflimis lancinantt- 
" bus doloribus segros torquent : externis re- 
ct mediis non cedunt ; fcalpello igitur ea attin- 
" gere oportet. Franequerae ex cubito feminae 
tl tale, plaga facia, fuftuli, quodramo mufculo- 
" cutanei nervi adhasrebat : poft operationem 
" optime fe habuit. In fubentaneis nervis fre- 
" qucnter efTe videntur. Amftelaedami fimile 
" ganglium genu mulieris occupans, codem 
" modo fanari curavi. In viris plus femel ea 
" vidi : albicant intus, cartilagineae duritise 
" funi:, renitentia, & intra nervorum tunicas 
" fedem habenfc." Lib. I. P. n. Cap. 2. § 5. 

I have feen many fymptoms refembling thofc 
which occurred in the preceding cafes, appa- 
rently follow, as confeqnences of wounds in- 
flided on fmall branches cf nerves ; but as this 
paper is already much longer than 1 expe&ed it 
would have been, I muft defer giving an ac- 
count 



[ io 9 ] 

count of them to another opportunity. As the 
following cafe exhibits fome uncommon circum- 
ftances, I infert it as a kind of fupplcment to 
the foregoing hiftories. 

" The lingular effects of an iffue in the iri- 
M fide of the thigh, which appeared in the cafe 
" of a clergyman ; written by himfelf, Auguft 

" 2 5 tb - r 793- 

" The Rev. Dr. T , of Knightfb ridge, 

" above 60 years of age, having had a hint 

M from a medical friend, that an iffue might be 

" of qfe to his health, he had one made by a 

" blifter, in the lower part and at the infide 

" of his right thigh, about the end of May laft. 

" Two days after the pea was put in, he was 

u feized with a ficknefs and vomiting, which 

" continued feveral hours. In about fix days 

" after this flrft attack, he had a return of the 

" fame fymptoms ; and thefe fits recurred every 

" fix or feven days. But what is very remark- 

" able, when the iffue began to difcharge, he 

(i became deaf in both his ears, and the deaf- 

" nefs arrived to fuch a degree, that in preach- 

" ing he could but juft hear his own voice. 

" After the iffue had been kept open fix 

" weeks, it occurred to him, that perhaps the 

" regular fits of fickpefs and vomiting, and the 

" unufual 



(: unufual deafnefs, (both of which he recol- 
" lected had commenced with the iflue) were 
" occafioned by a fympathy of the nerves ; and 
cc having made obfervations for one week longer, 
" which confirmed this opinion, he determined 
" to dry it up. This he did gradually, by ufing 
" peafe of a fmaller fize, till the ulcer was not 
cc more than one eighth of an inch in diameter. 
<c When the pea had been out only twelve hours, 
" he was fenfible of fome fmall return of his 
" hearing, and on looking at the fore, he found 
" it healed ; which he confidered as a farther 
iC confirmation of his opinion, refpecling the 
u caufe of his deafnefs, as well as of the ficknefs 
" and vomiting. He found, that as the wound 
" healed, the deafnefs leflened, and when it was 
" completely healed, his hearing was quite reco- 
" vered, nor has he had one fit of ficknefs fince." 

When Dr. T related his cafe to me, I 

defired him to let me fee the cicatrix of the 
iffue ; and on carefully examining it, it ap- 
peared probable that the pea had prefTed againft 
the fide of the vena faphena. I would alfo far- 
ther add, that my examination of the part ex- 
cited a flight degree of naufea. 



VI. An 



Ill 



VI. An Account of the Extraclion of an extra- 
tieous Subjlance from the Reclum. By Mr. Wil- 
liam Blair, Surgeon of the Lock Hofpital ; and 
of the General Dlfpenfary in Newman Street, 
St. Mary-le-bone* 

ON Tuefday, the 25th of March laft, a 
French gentleman was fent to me by an 
Apothecary in this neighbourhood, complaining 
of a pungent, hot, and irritating fenfation in 
the reclum ; which was considerably augmented 
during every evacuation per anum, Thefe pain- 
ful fymptoms had commenced on the preceding 
Sunday, and continued to encreafe in fo alarming 
a manner, that, upon the day following, he was 
induced to examine with his finger, whether or 
not any foreign fubftance, or other caufe of his 
uneafinefs, could be difcovercd in the inteftine. 
He had the good fortune to feel fomething in 
the rectum, which he thought was unnatural, 
but could not remove it ; and therefore he ap- 
plied the next day for chirurgical afiillance. 

Having fubmitted the patient to a proper ex- 
amination, I readily perceived an hard body 
confined in the interior membrane of the in- 
terline. With the help of a pair of forceps, I 

extracted 



r i.w ] 

extracted two portions of a brittle black fub- 
fiance; which, on careful infpe&ion, appeared 
to be bread toafted nearly to a cinder : the two 
pieces, which were whole before the extraction 
was attempted, might be together about an inch 
in length, half an inch in width, and one third 
of an inch in diameter. 

The patient remembered to have fwallowed 
fomething with confiderable difficulty two 
days before, while partaking of forne foup; 
which was probably the fame morfel of bread 
that diftrerTed him upon this occafion. 

Does it not appear from this cafe, that bread 
when toaftedislefs fit for digeftion than fome per- 
fons would have us believe ; and that it affords 
but little nourishment compared with that which 
is moderately baked ? 

However trifling the circumirances of the 
above cafe may be regarded in its earlieft ftage ; 
there can be no doubt entertained of the pro- 
bability of its terminating very feriouily, if the 
patient had not applied for fpeedy relief: inflam- 
mation, abfeefs, and all their confequences, 
might have enfued, if the efforts of nature, or 
the power of aperient and antiphlogiftic reme- 
dies had alone been trufted to. 

In fimilar in{fc»nccs, without lofmg time by 

endeavours 



[ »3 ] 

endeavours to relieve the patient's fufferings by- 
medicine, it will be immediately proper to fub- 
je& him to a careful examination. If the fimple 
introduction of a finger be inefficient to difen- 
gage the extraneous body, and it can be felt 
adhering to the ruga, or piercing the coats of 
the rectum, a pair of blunt-pointed fciflars, or 
forceps, (as the cafe may indicate) fhould be 
gently conducted upon the finger, in order to 
divide, break in pieces, or loofen the foreign 
fubftance : if a pointed bone, or other hard 
and fharp body, fhould be confined acrofs 
the gut, endangering the neighbouring parts, 
it will be prudent to empty the urinary blad- 
der, previous to any attempt to remove it by 
mechanical means : and, fhould the pain, and 
other ill effects become urgent, it might be ne- 
cefTary, after milder methods had proved inef- 
fectual, to make a judicious incifion either into 
the rectum, or circumjacent integuments, as 
the peculiarities of the cafe fhould require to fa- 
cilitate the extraction. To obviate the inflam- 
mation, and its concomitant fymptoms, leeches, 
anodyne and laxative clyfters, with the ufual 
antiphlogiflic remedies, ought to be diligently 
employed. 

Inftances of the kind above related, with 
Vol. VI. I fuirabJe 



C "4 ] 

fuitable remarks, are recorded by feveral prac- 
tical authors ; but the reader may fpare himfelf 
the trouble of perufing fome of them, by con- 
fulting the Me moires de VAcademie Royale de 
Chirurgie, Tom. I. p. 540, et fcq. 4to Edit. 

Newman Street, Ofl. 6, 1 794. 



VII. A Cafe of Aneurifm of the Crural Artery ; 
communicated in a Letter to Dr. Simmons, by 
Mr. Thompfon Forfler, Surgeon on the Staff 
of the Army, and Surgeon to Guy's. HofpitaL 

TO DR. SIMMONS. 

Dear Sir, 
r*r^O the two cafes of Aneurifm which you 
JL have done me the honour to infer* in 
the fifth volume of Medical Facts and Obfer- 
vations, I am defirous of adding the following, 
as I flatter myfelf it will tend flill further to 
elucidate the peculiar utility and advantages of 
the operation in queflion. 

Believe me, Dear Sir, 

Your's, &c. 

fiww. 5, 1794. THOMPSON FORSTER. 

CASE. 



[ "5 ] 

CASE. 

Lawrence M'Carthy, a labouring man, aged 
thirty-fcven years, was admitted, as my patient, 
into Guy's Hofpical, on the 30th of July 1794, 
for the cure of an aneurifm of the crural artery. 

About nine months before his admiffion, he 
had perceived a imall tumor on his right thigh, 
near that part wheie the crural artery dips under 
the triceps muicle ; as it occafioned no incon- 
venience, nor prevented his working, he took 
but little notice of it ; it came fpontaneoufly, 
without any external violence, and remained 
flationary for near fix months before it became 
painful : when the tumor had acquired the fize 
of an egg, a pulfation was perceptible in it, 
but not befoie. 

At this period of the difeafe he was advifed 
to foment the part, and to make ufe of lini- 
ments : this he continued to do for fome 
time ; but finding no relief from thefe reme- 
dies, he applied to a furgeon, who recom- 
mended the ufe of a bandage, which he made 
ufe of for near three months, but without any 
abatement of the pain ; and the tumor in the 
mean time had increafed to a very considerable 
I 2 tize, 



[ n6 ] 

fize, and the limb in general had acquired 
fomething more than its natural bulk. 

The patient, naturally hypochondriacal, be- 
came anxious, irritable, and dejected ; com- 
plaining of great pain in the limb, and parti- 
cularly in the tumor, which was in fome mea- 
fure eafed by prefTure. In this ftate he came 
into the hofpital; and his general habit having 
been lowered by bleeding, purgat : ves, and a 
fuitable regimen previoufly to the operation, I 
performed it or* Monday, the nth of Auguft, 
by making an incifion in the courfe of the lower 
edge of the fartorius mufcle, and about an 
inch below where the profunda is ufually given 
off. Having laid bare the artery, * I patted a 
ligature under it with an eyed probe, and ap- 
plying the Rick, furrounded by adhefive plafter, 
he, as defcribed in the former cafes -f, the ar- 

* With a view of conveying to the reader a more precife 
idea of the operation, I have made a (ketch of the parts con- 
cerned in it, from a fubject diffe&ed for the purpofe. See 
the annexed engraving (plate I, fig. 2.) in which a refers 
to Poupart's ligament ; b to the crural artery, with a li- 
gature patted under it at the part where it was tied ; c to 
the profunda ; and . d to the fartorius mufcle. It feems 
hardly necelfary to remind the reader that the object of this 
fketch being merely to point out the feat of the operation,, 
the parts are delineated in their natural ftate. 
t Vide Vol. V. p. 6. 

tery 



C »7 1 

tery was thus furrounded, and by thefe means 
equally comprefled; the pulfation below of 
courfe ceafed : but, for fear of a fudden hae- 
morrhage, I pafted a fecond ligature about half 
an inch above the former, laying it loofe, that 
an aftiftant might inftantly tie it in cafe of fuch 
an accident. 

Augult 2 1 ft. The firft ligature, with the 
flick, came away with eafe. 

Auguft 2 2d. The fecond ligature came away 
with equal eafe. 

An account of the flate of the pulfe at the 
wrift, and of the temperature of both limbs, at 
the ham, and at the foot,was taken every day with 
great accuracy by Mr. G. Babington, according 
to the annexed Table *, until Auguft the 27th, 
when the temperature of each was found to be 
equal. 

The iize of the tumor gradually decreafed, 
and the patient, having the perfect ufe of his 
limb, was difmifled, cured, October lp, 1794. 

The preceding cafe differs materially from 
the two former, not only in the circumftance of 
the tumor in this having been fuuatcd in the_ 

* See page 119. 

I 3 upper 



C "8 ] 

upper part of the thigh, fo that the artery could 
not be fecuied lower than about an inch below 
where the profunda is ufually given off, but 
likewife in the very great pain the patient en- 
dured both night and da)' for three weeks before 
the operation. The tumor was as considerable, 
but the enlargement of the limb below it was 
much lefs than in the former cafes. After the 
operation, the fymptoms were much Slighter 
than in the other cafes, probably owing to the 
low flate I thought it proper to reduce the patient 
to for the purpofe; and the ligature came away 
on the tenth day after the operation without the 
leafl trouble. But the circumftance in which it 
differed the moil: elTentially from the other two, 
was, that the tumor was completely abforbed in. 
feven weeks, and the patient had then acquired 
a perfect ufe of the limb, while, in the former 
cafes, the patients did indeed acquire the ufe of 
their limbs, but the tumors, though leflened 
and free from pulfation, flill remained. 



TABLE. 



[ »9 3 



TABLE. 



Day of the 
Month. 



pulle 

at 
wrifl 



tern. 

of 

arm. 



tern, 
right 
ham. 



right 
foot. 



left 
ham. 



left 
foot. 



1 line of day 
when the obf. 
were made. 



Auguft 


1 1 




68£« 


98S 


94 ° 


97 ° 


96 ° 




12 




68$ 


97 


9 1 


9* 


89 






ia8 


70 


99 


9 1 


94 


93 




*3 


109 


68 


98 


92 


90 


88 






Mi 


7 1 


100 


95 


98 


95 




M 


104 


68 


98 


9 1 


9 1 


91* 






116 


7* 


99 


96 


96 


96 




»5 


96 


69 


97 


9 1 


94 


88 






112 


724 


Q7 


93 


94 


95 




16 


97 


r- 


9 8 


935 


94 


90 






ne 


73 


98 


95 


94 


94 




17 


96 


7 1 


98 


92 


95 


89 






112 


74 


97 


91 


94 i 


94 




18 


r- 


70 


93 


9* 


92 1 


89 






11c 


72 


97 


9 2 


94 


93 




19 


100 


68 


94 


90 


9- 


9 1 






124 


7*k 


101 


tf* 


97 


97 




20 


114 


67 


100 


93 


96 


94 






n6 


70 


99 


95 


95 


94 



io£ 

Si- 
ft 

84 

io| 

ft£ 

H 

8i 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 



P. M. 
A. M. 
P. M. 



II. 

M. 

m. 
M. 



A.M. 

P. M. 



A. M. 

P. M. 
A. M. 
P. hi. 

A.M. 
P. M. 
A.M. 
P. M. 



21 Firft ligature and flick, came away with 
a perfect lolution of continuity. 

100 I 66 °| 97 I 8° I 93 » j 86 » 
100 j 69 I 98 J 92 j 95 j 94 

22 Second ligature was removed. 



9 
8 

8 ! ; 

eafc, there bein 





100 


69 


96 


86 ° 


93 • 


84 » 




108 


69 


9 ? 


94 


97 


95 


»3 


ioo 


6;i 


96 


9 1 


93 


9° 




104 


7ci 


98 


94 


95 


93 


24 


96 


69 


97 


89 


95 


87 




104 


69 


99 


95 


98 


95 


25 


104 


661 


98 


93 


96 


92 




106 


692 


95 


9^ 


93 * 


9 1 


26 


ICO 


64 


96 


9^ 


9 1 


86 




106 


66 


98 


92 


94 


9° 


27 


100 


64 


9 6 


9i 


92 


9 l 




95 


6 3 2 L 


96 


9? 


96 


9^ 



A.M. 
P. M. 



8^ A.M. 
9 P. M. 
9 A.M. 
S£ P.M. 
10 A.M. 
8 P. M. 
8^ A. M. 
8 P.M. 
8 A. M. 
8£ P. M. 
8h A.M. 
8" P. M. 



VIIL An 



120 



VIII. An Account of a Key Inftrument of anew Con- 
Jiruftion ; with Observations on the Principles 
en which it afts, in the E-xtraclion of Teeth, and 
on the Mode of applying it. By Mr, Robert 
Clarke, Surgeon at Sunderland, in the County of 
Durham, Communicated in a Letter to Mr. 
Anthony Carlifle, Surgeon of the Wefiminfter 
Hofpitai, and Reader of Anatomy in London ; 
and by him to Dr. Simmons. 

To Mr, Carlisle. 
Sir, 

TTJITH this I fend you a Key Inftrument, 
* 1 for the Extraction of Teeth, of a con- 
ftruclion different from any in common ufe, 
and which in practice fully anfwers to the 
expectations I had formed, a priori, from a care- 
ful examination of the principles of its action. 
I cannot, perhaps, give you a clearer idea of 
its advantages, than that which you will obtain 
by purfuing the fame train of inveftigation 
which I followed myfelf. I fhall therefore pro- 
ceed to lay it before you, that I may more 
thoroughly convince you of the propriety of the 
alteration I have made, or be corrected by your 
pointing out any error I may have fallen into. 

la 




* 4 

* 



SI 




I 






4 \ 




J 






<3 




\ 














E 




', 


J 1 




1 I 


V 




\ 


•£ 






4 




\ i 


* 





51 



[ 1" 1 

In the firft place then, it appeared to mc that 
as the fulcrum, or point, upon which the tooth 
is carried round as on a center, is that part of 
the bolfter which refls upon the gums, the axis 
of motion of the inftrument would always be 
found by drawing a line through that point and 
the middle of the handle ; and confequcntly 
that the old conftruction of the Key Inftrument 
was free from an inconvenience which a f tends 
the more modern one : I mean the axis of the 
bolfter and axis of the (hank making an angle 
with each other ; on which account it is d\C- 
pofed to fhift its point of action on the gums, 
and to raife the troth in a plane inclined to the 
throat, inftead of a vertical one, as may be 
clearly feen by infpecting Figures I. IT. (Plate 
II.*) where a, b, repreient the axis of motion ; 
r, d 9 the direction in which each inftrument 
raifes the tooth ; and e. f. (Fig. If.) the axis 
of the bolfter. 

Now as the line of direction in Fig. I. is per- 
pendicular to the jaw, it is needlefs to fay that 
it is highly preferable to Fig. II. where the line 
of direction is inclined backward, making the 

•• It fecms right to obfervc here, that all the figures of this 
plate are on a reduced fcaleof two thirds of their proper lize, 

extraction 



C 122 ] 

extraction of the tooth more difficult, and ex- 
pofing that which is fituated behind it to be 
driven from its focket, or even to be caught in 
the arch of the claw. Befides this, the bolder 
refts only upon the corner d, adding greatly to 
the injury of the gums. 

The conftruclion then of the Key-inftrument 
delineated in Fig. I. would fcem perfect, were it 
not that in drawing teeth inwards, with refpect 
to the jaw, the fore teeth prevent its due appli- 
cation, confining it to the direction reprefentred 
in Figure V. 

To remedy this imperfection I have made 
the inftrument with a bend in its (hank, to clear 
the fore teeth, and to allow its proper application, 
as in Figure III. where the fame ohfervations 
and references apply as in Figure I. and there- 
fore it is unnecefTary to repeat them. But in 
order that the comparative merits of the three 
inftruments may be feen at a glance, 1 have 
added Figures IV. and V. wherein the axis of 
motion, and the direction of therifing tooth, are 
ihown by dotted lines. 

Having; fullv confidered what relates to the 
direction of the tooth, I mall next examine the 
mechanifm which takes hold of it. For this 
purpofe recouife mqft be had to the engraving. 

Let 



C I2 3 ] 

Let a^ by c, Figure VI. reprefent an end view of 
a Key inftrument, fixed upon a piece of hard, 
fmooth wood. Then it is obvious, that if it be 
turned from left to right, by means of its 
handle, it will break the wood in the direction 
d, c, and caufe the upper fragment to revolve 
on the point c, as a center. It is equally ob- 
vious, that if a line be drawn from the points, 
eroding the oppofite furface of the folid e, /, at 
right angles, the counterpoife of the claw will 
fall into that line before it can take hold ; for 
then the point b, is at the greateft poffible dif- 
tanceTrom the furface e,f; confequently if the 
inftrument be placed as in Figure VII. the 
point c will delcend; or, if as in Figure VIII. 
it will afcend until it coincides with the line 
a, b. 

I fhall now endeavour to apply this to prac- 
tice. Let i, 2, 3, in Figure IX. reprefent a 
tooth with its roots fixed in a feclion of the jaw, 
and its corona engaged in a Key-inftrument ; 
then it will readily appear that upon the action 
of the inftrument, the tooth will be drawn 
from its focket, and carried round the point b, 
as a center, rather than the joint fubflance of 
the tooth and jaw be broken in the line a, b, as 
happens in Figure VI. This however happens 

3 on] y 



[ "4 ] 

only under particular circumftances : For if 
the bolder be placed too high, the tooth will 
be broken ; and if too low, the alveolar procefs 
will always be torn away with it. It is therefore 
a matter of importance to determine the bed 
point of contact for the bolfter, and this I have 
uniformly found to be at two-thirds the depth 
of the tooth, the claw being fixed at one third, 
as reprefented in Figure IX. 

It will always be eafy to afcertain this point, 
by attending to the fize of the corona, and the 
part of the jaw where the tooth is fituated ; and. 
equally fo to make the inftrument ad \fpon it, 
by ufing a larger or fmaller claw as the cafe 
may require. For iUuftracipn, however, I 
fhall refer to Figure X. which reprefents a 
piece of wood grafped by the tooth inftru- 
ment in the fame manner as in Figure VI. 
Now if a larger claw, ihewn by the dotted line, 
be ufed, the bolder will fix higher upon the 
wood than before. For as the center pin of 
the claw will always reft in the line a, b, the 
bolfter muft rife higher before it can come into 
contact. But notwithstanding the ufe of a larger 
or fmaller claw, in proportion to the fize of the 
tooth, enables us to fix it at a proper height, 
the Aife of a very difproportionate one is always 

inconvenient, 



[ iH 3 

inconvenient, by depriving us of the ufe of the 
crank, in drawing teeth inwards, and by en- 
croaching upon the cheeks in drawing them 
outwards. I have therefore in the conftrudtion 
of this inftrument, taken care to make the 
bolfter of fuch a depth, as to be free from either 
inconvenience. 

The form of the bolder is by no means a 
matter of indifference ; for if it be too fmall, 
it prefents fo fmall a furface to the gums, that 
the prefTure made upon them, by the extraction 
of a tooth moderately firm, cuts them through, 
and even penetrates the bone, efpecially if the 
bolfter be of the ufual form. I have therefore 
been careful to make it of a proper fize, and to 
give it a prolate fpheroidal figure, as being the 
lead difpofed to injure the gums, and applicable 
with exactnefs and eafe to all parts of the 
month ; and in order Hill further to guard 
againft this bruifing of the gums, I wrap the 
bolfter to the thicknefs of a line, with tow, 
wound on as tight as I can, before I fiide for- 
ward the bolt and put in the claw. 

I have, alio been attentive to the form of the 
claws, that they may touch the tooth only with 
their points. And the inftrument is fo con- 
trived, that they can be quickly changed or 

turned 



[ "6 ] 

turned to an oppofite direction as the cafe may 
require: this is done by means of a Aiding 
bolt, inftead of a fcrew, which paries through 
the claws. 

I have always found that when the tooth is 
to be turned from right to left in drawing it, 
that the handle anfwers belt placed perpendi- 
cularly ; and when from left to right, horizon- 
tally. The reafon of this will be obvious, 
if we confider that in the flrft cafe, the prona- 
tor mufclcs of the operator's arm, which are 
thofe exerting the force, acl: with moft advan- 
tage when the hand is vertical ; and in the 
fecond cafe, that the fupinators acl: moft advan- 
tageoufly with the hand prone. I have therefore 
contrived the handle fo that it may be eafily 
turned, as often as there is occafion to turn the 
/daw. 

I am, Sir, &c. 

Sunderland, Robert Clarke. 

Aug. 1 8, 1794. 



IX. An 



I 127 ] 



IX. An Account of a new Species of Swietenia 
(Mahogany) ; and of Experiments and Qbfer- 
v at ions on its Bark, made with a View to- a f cer- 
tain its Powers, and to compare them with thofe 
of Peruvian Bark, for which it is propofed as a 
Subjlitute : Being an Abjlracl of a Paper on 
this Subject, addrejfed to the Honourable Court 
of Directors of the United Eaft-India Company. 
By William Roxburgh, M.D. 

THE fpecies of Swietenia defcribed in this 
paper, and which Dr. Roxburgh names 
Swietenia Febrifuga *, is a native of the moun- 
tainous part of the Rajamundry Circar, North 
of Samulcotah and Peddapore. It is a very 

• Dr. Andrew Duncan, junior, who has made this new 
fpecies of Swietenia the fubjecl of a very ingenious inaugu- 
ral DhTcrtation, gives a good reafon for preferring, as a 
trivial name, the Hindoo appellation, SoymiJa^ to one 
founded on its medicinal properties ; iimilar properties, he 
obferves, being afcribed by Dr. Wright (London Medical 
Journal, Vol. VIII. p, 286) to the mahogany tree of Ja- 
maica (Swietenia Mabagoni), another fpecies of the fame 
genus. — Vide Tentamen inaugurate de Swietenia Soymida ; 
Autiorc Audrea Duncan. 8vo. Euinburgi, 1794. Editor, 

large 



C "8 ] 

large tree, known among the Hindoos by the 
name of Soymida, and flowers about the end of 
the cold or beginning of the hot feafon. Its 
feeds ripen in three or four months after. 

Of this tree Dr. Roxburgh gives the follow- 
ing botanic defcription : 

" TRUNK. Very ftraight, rifing to a great 
u height, of a great thicknefs, and covered 
" with a grey, fcabrous, cracked bark. 

" BRANCHES. Numerous, the lower 
" fpreading, the higher afcending, forming a 
" very large fhady head. 

" LEAVES. Alternate, about the extre- 
" mi'ies of the brachlets (turiones) abruptly 
" feathered, about twelve inches long. 

" LEAFLETS. Oppofite, very fhort, pe- 
" tiolated, three or four pair, oval, obtuie, or 
" end-nicked, the lower fide generally extend- 
" ing a little further down on the petiolet than 
" the upper; fmooth, mining; from three to 
" five inches long, and from two to three 
" broad, the inferior final left. 

" PETIOLE. Round, fmooth, about nine 
" to ten inches long. 

" STIPULES none. 

" PANICLE. Very large, terminal, dif- 



r i2 9 ] 

" fufe, bearing great numbers of middle-fizcd, 
" white, inodorous flowers. 

" PEDUNCLE and PEDICLES. Round 
u and fmooth. 

" BRACTS. Very minute. 

" CALYX. Below, five-leaved; LEAF- 
« LETS. Oval, deciduous. 

" COROL. Petals five, inverfe, egged, 
" obtufe, concave, expanding. NECTARY. 
" Not quite half the length of the petals, a 
€t little bellied ; mouth ten-toothed, teeth bi- 
« fid (two-cleft). 

" STAMEN. Filaments ten, very fliort, 
u inferted juft within the mouth of the nectary. 
" ANTHERS. Oval. 

" PISTIL. Germ conical. STYLE. Thick, 
€€ tapering. STIGMA. Large, targetted,fhut- 
u ting up the mouth of the nectary. 

" PERICARP. Capfule egged, large, five. 
cc celled, five-valved, vaivelets gaping from 
" the top. 

" RECEPTACLE. In the centre, large, 
*' fpongy, five-angled ; angles (harp and con- 
" nected, with the futures of the capfule, be- 
" tween them, deeply fulcated. 

cc SEEDS. Many in each cell, imbricated, 
u obliquely wedge-fhaped, enlarged by a long 

Vol. VI. K " mem- 



C 13° ] 



cc membranaceous wing, inferted, at the upper 
" point of the wing, into a long brown fpeck 
u on the upper part of the excavations of the 
" receptacle : all the reft of the receptacle is 
" white." 



The wood of this tree, we are told, is of a 
dull red colour, remarkably hard and heavy; 
and is reckoned, by the natives, by far the 
moft durable timber they know; on which ac- 
count it is ufed for all the wood work in their 
temples. 

The bark of the trunk and large branches, 
of large and middle-fized trees, is covered 
with a dark nifty- coloured coat, of about an 
eighth of an inch in thicknefs, which cracks in 
various directions, and fometimes peels off in 
irregular pieces, according to the directions of 
the cracks. Immediately under this is a very 
firm, but brittle coat, of about three-eighths © 
of an inch in thicknefs. When fir ft cut, it is 
light-coloured ; but on drying, or even expo- 
fure to the air for a few minutes, it turns to a 
reddifh brown. The inner lamina are thin, 
confiding of tough, lighter-coloured layers. 

The bark of the younger branches is not 
cracked, is pretty fmooth, of a much lighter 

colour, 



[ W ] 

colour, and has not the nifty coat above de- 
fcribed, but has often many blotches of various 
coloured lichen over it : it confifts wholly of 
the brown, folic], and inner layers. 

The outer ru ft- coloured layer of the trunk 
has but little tafte; the other two poffefs a lit- 
tle aromatic fmell, and their tafte is very bitter 
and aftringent, accompanied with fomething 
aromatic, but in a trifling degree. There is 
nothing difagreeable in the tafte, more than 
may be expected from a pure, fimple, ftrong 
bitter and aftringent united. The middle la- 
mina are eafily reduced to a very fine rofe or 
light brown-coloured powder. 

Cold water, in the courfe of an hour, our au- 
thor obferves, acquired from this bark a deep but 
clear reddifb colour. The moft minute portion of 
a chalybeate (one drop of a folution of twenty 
grains of fal martis in an ounce of water) in- 
ftantly changed a much-diluted cold infufion 
to a deep purple, which, on Handing, became 
darker and darker, with a reddifli tinge; and 
no decompofition took place till about the tenth 
day; the colouring matter then began to fepa- 
rate, and fall to the bottom in black flakes, 
leaving the liquor almoft colourlefs. If the 
inrufion was fomc days (from four to thirty) 
K 2 old, 



C 134 ] 

old, the colour produced by the martial folu- 
tion was as inftintan^ous as when freflr, and 
deeper; and at no peiod, up to thirty days, 
did ii (how the leaft tinge of green. Ten times 
the fame quantity of the fame martial folution, it 
feems, did not produce fo great a change upon a 
fimilar infufion of the common pale Peruvian 
bark; and its cfFect on the latter was much 
flower. Its bitter qualities are alfo defcribed as 
much more intenfe than thofe of the common 
fcrt of Peruvian bark. 

The infufion. we are told, bears to be mixed in 
any proportion with fpirirs, without becoming 
f tit bid, or producing any kind of decompofitiom 
The firi* ] codfon is considerably deeper-colour- 
ed than the infufion (which colour it retains in 
patting the filter), and poffeffes the fame powers 
in a higher degree* but does not retain them 
fo long, nor is it fo pleafant to the tafte. On 
Handing any length of time with the chalybeate, 
the colour becomes pale, and is fooner decom- 
pofed than the cold infufion : on Handing fome 
days it lees fall a final! quantity of a reddiih, 
earthy fecula, which is intenftly bitter and 
aftringent; the fuperincumbent liquor becom- 
ing gradually clearer and clearer, and at the fame 
time of a deeper red, much refembling the 
tin&ure. Lime-water added to the decoction, 

infufion, 



[ «3J ] 

infufion, or diluted tincture, darkened them 
confiderably, and caufed in all a copious depo- 
fition of reddifh brown fecula, which became 
purple coloured in twenty four hours. The de- 
coction, it isobferved, gave thegrealeft quantity 
of fecula- An infufion of pale Peruvian bark, 
prepared in every refpect the fame as the infufion 
of Swietenia bark, was treated with lime-water in 
the fame manner, and formed a feparation, but 
in a much lefs degree. 

Bark of MeliaAzadirachta (Margofatree) treat- 
ed exactly in the fame manner, formed a fepara- 
tion of a lighter-coloured fecula, in a much 
greater quantity than the common Peruvian 
bark, but much lefs than the Swietenia bark. 

The clear reddifh-coloured liquor, we are told, 
that floats over the precipitate caufed by the addi- 
tion of lime water, is void of aftringency to the 
tafte, or has it only in a trifling degree ; but for a 
farther proof, it feems, a chalybeate was employ- 
ed, which did not in the lead darken this liquor; 
but a greenifh tinge was produced, together with 
a further decompofition and precipitation of a 
reddifh fecula. This experiment, our author 
thinks, ferves to mow that at leaft the aflringent 
part of the bark is entirely thrown down by 
lime-water; and he confidered this as fo interehS 
K 3 ing 



[ 134 ] 

ing a point, that he repeated the fame experi- 
ment with this, as well as with other aflringent 
barks, and found the refult exactly the fame. 

The fame chalybeate added to lime-water of 
the fame ftrength as that employed in the above- 
mentioned experiments, produced a fmall, green 
cloud ; the Swietenia bark infufion thrown into 
this produced a muddinefs, and foon after, a 
copious precipitation of dirty-coloured fecula. 

An infufion of this bark in lime water is deeper 
coloured than the plain infufion, but poffefTes 
very little bitternefs, and Hill lefs aftrngency. 
A chalybeate added to this infufion rendered its 
red colour a little deeper only, and no decom- 
pofition took place : after (landing lb me time, 
the infufion had no tafte of the lime-water. 

From thefe experiments, Dr. Roxburgh con- 
fiders lime-water as a very improper addition; 
and obferves that, in this refpect, they agree with 
thofe made by Dr. Irving on the red and quil- 
led Peruvian barks. 

Vitriolic acid rendered the firft decoction, or 
watery infufion, paler; and, upon {landing, it 
became a little turbid, and let fall a fmall quan- 
tity of a light-brown fediment. 

Vinegar had the fame effect. 

Mild, or cauflic vegetable alkali, or mild 

foffil 



[ m 1 

foflil alkali, foon deepened and rendered brighter 
the cold watery infufion or decoction, nor did 
any decompofition take place in forty,-eight 
hours. 

Mild magnefia, limply added, rendered the 
colour of the infufion paler, without fenfibly 
altering the tafte. 

Alum has been at times fucceft fully em- 
ployed for the cure of intermitting fevers, and 
the analogy it bears to other tonics renders it a 
likely remedy. Our author was therefore de- 
firous to try what would take place on adding 
it in a fmall quantity to infufions and decoctions 
of this bark. The addition, it feems, rendered 
their colour paler, and a little decompofition 
took place, with a precipitation of a fmall quan- 
tity of a light-brown fecula : to the tafte it in- 
creafed the aftringency without fenfibly dimi- 
nifhing the bitter; but with alum they did not 
change their colour when a folution of green 
vitriol was added. 

Eight ounces of the coarfe powder were 
boiled in ten pints of foft well water to four 
pints; the refiduum was repeatedly boiled in 
frem parcels of water, exactly in the fame 
manner for eleven times, when the liquor 
K 4 came 



C i36 ] 

came off (till much coloured, but taflelefs, and 
fhovved no figns of aftringency with the chaly- 
beate ; the tenth decoction excepted, which did 
fhow figns of aftringency, as it was darkened a 
little by it. 

The frefh decoction of common Peruvian 
bark, made fimilarly, but in a fmaller quan- 
tity, {truck ilowly about as deep a colour with 
the fame chalybeate, as the fourth or fifth de- 
coction of Swietenia bark did quickly. 

As the eleventh decoction was taflelefs, al- 
though coloured, it was thrown away ; the other 
ten had been regularly flrained, while hot, and 
fuffered to ftand till perfectly cold, then poured 
off, clear from fediment ; they were mixed, and 
evaporated to a hard extract, which weighed 
two ounces and three-quarters. The extract, 
when foft, was of a dark red colour, flavourlefs, 
fmooth, homogeneous, and unctuous when rub- 
bed between the fingers and thumb. The tafte 
of the decoction was well preferred in this ex- 
tract ; the mod minute part of it, diflblved in wa- 
ter, {truck a black colour with martial folution as 
quickly and as deep as the decoction itfelf, but 
the tafte was not fo ftrong as might be expected 
from that of the bark. This, our author thinks, 

might 



[ *37 3 

might perhaps be owing to the more fixed, inert 
parts, extracted by the long and repeated boil- 
ings (which lafted two days) being mixed in 
the mafs of extract. But this, he obferves, 
would not be the cafe, or but in a (mail degree, 
with one prepared from only one or two boil- 
ings. To determine this point, he boiled one 
ounce of the powdered bark in two pints of 
water, pretty brifkly, down to one pint; after 
the liquor was poured off, to the reiiduum were 
added two other pints of water, and boiled in 
the fame manner. The decoctions were mixed, 
and evaporated to a dry extract, which weigh- 
ed two drachms and a half, and was in tafie, 
&c much as the former from ten coctions ; the 
proportion of extract from two boilings is there- 
fore, he ob(erves ? nearly equal to that of ten : 
fothat, although the decoctions were highly co- 
loured, and considerably bitter and aftringent, 
even to the tenth, yet they could have contained 
but a fmall portion of the powerful qualities of 
the bark. 

The refiduum, when perfectly dry, weighed 
four drachms and, a half; and fpirit of wine 
being poured on it, though affifted at times with 
the heat of the fun for many days, extracted 

neither 
3 



C i3§ ] 

neither colour nor tafte, fo completely had the 
virtues of the bark been extracted by the water. 

Dr. Roxburgh obferves that the dry extract 
imbibes much moifture when the weather is 
damp; fo much as to make it {tain the fingers, or 
any thing that touches it : that it melts readily 
in the mouth ; is eaiily foluble in water and in 
fpirits ; and, like die decoction and tincture, 
bears to be mixed without decompofition. 
Thefe foliations and mixtures, we are told, re- 
ferable much the original decoction and tinc- 
ture, and their mixtures, both in tafle and co- 
lour. 

Should this ever become the valuable drug it 
promifes, it would be advifabie, our author 
thinks, to have the extract prepared on or near 
the fpot where the trees grow. Tf this is done 
during the hot feafon, the evaporation, he ob- 
ferves, might be effected by the heat of the fun 
and hot winds, which would certainly produce 
a much more elegant, efficacious extract than 
could poiTibly be prepared in any other way or 
place, and would alfo preclude every idea or 
chance of its being ibphiflicated. 

This bark, he finds, contains much muci- 
laginous matter, the cloth that the decoctions 

were 



[ '39 ] 

were {trained through, having become, when 
dry, ftiffas if ftarched. This, he thinks, may- 
account for the decoctions remaining fo many 
days turbid, which is, no doubt, he adds, favour- 
able for the action of the ftomach upon the bark. 
The late Dr. Fothergill, he obferves, recom- 
mended an addition of fomc mucilage to decoc- 
tions of common bark, in order to keep them 
turbid, that the active parts might be kept more 
completely fufpended in the liquor *\ 

In the way of diftillation, this bark, it feems, 
yields nothing, not the fmalleft apparent quality, 
either with water or fpirits. In this refpect, Dr. 
Roxburgh thinks, it refembles exactly both the 
pale and red Peruvian barks, viz. in having its 
powers or virtues of a very fixed nature. 

Rectified fpirit of wine extracts from the bark 
a clear, deep red tincture, poflelTing the aftrin- 
gency of the watery infufion or decoction, and 
more of the bitter. If not too ftrong, it makes, 
we are told, one of the molt pleafant bitters we 
are in poffeffion of; and it bears to be diluted 
with water in any proportion, without decom- 

* Med. Obf. and Inq. Vol.1, p. 321. 2d Edit. 8o>. 
London, 1758. 

pofition, 



C Ho J 

pofition, which renders it in many cafes the 
more defirable. 

Four ounces of powdered bark were infufd, 
by our author, for eight days, in three pints of 
French brandy; thefe were poured cfT, and four 
pints more of the fame brandy added, which, af- 
ter Handing four days, were alfo poured off: both 
thefe infufions were mixed, and he drew off, by 
diftillation, a quantity of the fpirit, which (as be- 
fore obierved) did not in the lead partake of any 
of the qualities of the bark : the red v.as gently 
evaporated to a dry extract, which weighed nine 
drachms. The extract itfelf was of a much darker 
colour than that procured by water, and was 
dried with more difficulty ; but the tafte of the 
two extracts was much the fame. The refiduum 
was boiled in fix pints of water to two, and the 
decoction was found to be dill pretty drong to 
the tade, both in bitternefs and aflringcncy. 
This induced him to repeat the boiling, twice 
more, with frefh parcels of water ; and the lad 
decoction, though weak, was ftill bitter, and 
ihewed frgns cf aftringency, with a martial 
folution. Thefe four decoctions were mixed 
and evaporated to a dry extract, weighing three 
drachms, which added to the fpirituous ex- 
tract, 



[ i4i ] 

tract, made in all twelve drachms, from four 
ounces cf powdered bark, and agreed nearly 
with the quantity procured by water alone. 

The antifeptic powers of this bark, accord- 
ing to our author's experiments, are not infe- 
rior ro its bitter and aftri^ent qualities ; for 
watery infufions in open phiais kept perfectly 
good for fixty days, without any tendency to fer- 
mentation, except a few air bubbles, which 
they difcharged about the fecond day ; indeed 
they acquired ftrength, we are told, as the co- 
lour produced at the end of that time (lixty 
days), by the addition of a chalybeate, was 
darker, and as instantaneous as at any prior 
period. 

Sixty grains of the lean of raw mutton were 
preferved fweeter and firmer in an infufion of 
ten grains of this bark in four ounces of water, 
than an equal quantity of the fame mutton in a 
fimilar infufion of pale quilled Peruvian bark. 
The flefh was tinged red by the infufion of Swi- 
etenia bark, and its fibres were firm and diitinct 
at the end of twelve days; while that preferved 
in the Peruvian infufion was white, and its fibres 
fofter, and infinitely more fetid. 

Almoft all the foregoing experiments, it is 

obferved. 



[ *4* ] 

obferved, were made firfl with bark of the 
fmaller branches, and again with bark of the 
trunk of a large trees the latter was evidently 
ftrongeft. 

The feeds of this tree are defcribed as a ftrong, 
fimple, pleafant biflfcr, without any of the af- 
tringent power. The leaves pofTefs nearly if 
not all the aftringency of the bark, and a very 
large proportion of its bitter ; but their tafte is 
faid to be not fo agreeable either in fubflance or 
in infufion. 

From the foregoing analyils, Dr. Roxburgh 
ventures to draw the following conclufions : 

Firfl. That the active parts of the bark of 
this fpecies of Swietenia are much more foluble 
than thofe of Peruvian bark, particularly in 
watery menflruums. 

Secondly. That it contains a much larger 
proportion of active (bitter and aftringent) 
powers, than Peruvian bark. 

Thirdly. That the watery preparations of 
this bark remain good much longer than fimilar 
preparations of Peruvian bark. 

Fourthly. That thefpirituous and watery pre- 
parations bear being mixed in any proportion, 
without decomposition. 

Fifthly. That the bark in powder, and its 

preparations, 



[ 143 ] 

preparations, are much more antifeptic than 
Peruvian bark, or fimilar preparations of it. 

Now, fince this bark yields fo much of its 
virtues to cold water, as to preferve flefli from 
corruption, in a hot climate, with the thermo- 
meter from 87° to 102 ,' it is rcafonable, he 
contends, to luppofe it will yield ftill more of 
its tonic and antifeptic virtues in the ftomach, 
where it meets with the mofl powerful folvents : 
we have therefore, he thinks,' much to expeel: 
from it in the cure of gangrene and other pu- 
trid difcafes. 

Bitters and aftringents, in a feparate (late, our 
author obferves, are confidered as tonic reme- 
dies ; but when found combined in the fame 
fubftance, they become flill more powerful : it 
is from thefe qualities, he contends, that the 
beft judges allow the Peruvian bark to derive 
its virtues. On this point he quotes the autho- 
rity of Dr. Cullen, who has remarked, " that the 
" recurrence of the paroxyfms, in intermitting 
" and remitting fevers, depends on the recur- 
" rence of atony in the extremities of the arterial 
" fyfiem; hence they are prevented by fuch 
cc tonic medicines as obviate this atony : a 
" great variety of aftringents and limple bitters 
•* have been found to anfwer that end, but 
" none, hitherto difcovered, fo effectually as the 

" Peruvian 



r H4 ] 

" Peruvian bark, on account:, it is thought, of 
" its pofTefling thofe powers conjoined *." 

The analeptic qualities of Peruvian bark, our 
author obferves, are alio great; hence itsufe in 
the cure of all febrile putrefcent diforders, at- 
tended with debility, putrid ulcers, &c. 

From the evident qualities of this new bark, 
and from the fuccefsful experience he has had 
with it, in intermittent fevers-)"- , &c. Dr. Rox- 
burgh 

* Treatife on the Materia Medics. 

* Hiilories of feveral of thefe cafes have been communi- 
cated by Dr. Roxburgh to the College of Phyficians at Edin- 
burgh, and an account of them is given by Dr. Duncan in the 
dilTcrtation referred to in a former note, together wich the re- 
fults of feveral trials made with this bark, by his father, in 
the Clinical Ward of the Royal Infirmary at Edinburgh. We 
mail take the liberty of tranferibing this part of his work : 

" Morbus, quo Roxburgius hunc corticem fii-'pifTime adhi- 
" bendura curavit, febris quotidiana apud Cullenum nun- 
•* cupatur. Rarius ex toto, fed ex parte, et ad breve tantum- 
" modo tempus, remittens, periculofiflimus erat. JEgroti fere 
" omnes hoc mcrbo correpti fuerant, dum incolebant iftos 
•' montes ingentes, qui Indiaepeninfulamtrarfcurrunt. Inter 
" hos montes fylvae opacae, denfa ferarum tecta, convalles pa- 
M ludofas,hominumgeneri peitiferas, ubiqu? ohumbrant. Se- 
** deseft indigenis etiam, confut'tudine licet obhrmatis, infa- 
" lubris, advenis autem adeo perniciofa ut pauci, perpauci 
* f quidem, quos dira neceilltas inter hos montes hiemare coege- 
" rit, morbo hoc atrocifiimo immunes finf. Tali febre, tali 

,e tempeitate 



r 145 ] 

burgh has every rcafon to imagine it will prove 
equal, if not fuperior, to the Peruvian bark, for 
every purpofe for which that medicine is ufed. 

Our 

'• tempeftate iaborantium ne diraidiam quidem partem con- 
* c valefcere Roxburgius affimat. 

" Cal. Junii, A, D. 1 791. Indus annos natus viginti, 
" habitus tenuis, nonnullis ante mcnfibus, dum prope montes 
M occupabatur, fibre quotidiana affeclus erat. Corticem 
M Cinchona? officinalis aliquantifper fine fruclu aflumpferat; 
" idcirco Roxburgius, et quia ipfe parvas corticis Soyn:'d«e 
•' quantitates impune adhibuerat, aegro nihil a periculo ab- 
• - horrenti grana viginti pulveris ex aqua? cyatho fum nda 
" przefcripfit. Duabus exinde horis, fcrupuli duo adhibiti 
" funt ; et, poll fimile temporis intervallum, drachma. Cor- 
" tex aegro nequaquam in gratus erat, alvurrique folvit. iEger, 
" cortice poftea ad drachmam, unaquaque intermiflione, af- 
" fumpto, triduo febre immunis erat. 

•« Pridie Iduum Augufti, A. D. 1791, J — V — Lufi- 
t( tanus*, annum agens quadragefinum quintum, ejufque duae 
*' filiae, altera fex, altera tres annos nata, manferant aliquan- 
" diu, inter menfem proxime praeteritum, intra montium ter- 
•■ minos ; initioque menfis hbcntis, febre quotidiana, qua; 
•■ nihil ferme quicquam remifit, affe<5ti funt. Febre remit- 
** tente, femper altera quaque hora fumebant aqua? ex cortice 
" Soymidae* pater fefcunciam, filia major natu unciam, et 
*' minor femunciam. Duos poft dies, a morbo valebant. 

» M R. pulv. core Swiet. Soymidae unciam unam," 

M aquas fontana: libras duas. 
" MifccantLir,ct phiala prius agitatl, modo prajferipto fumantur." 

* Vide p. 148. 

Vol. VI. L. " Morbus, 



r i 4 6 ] 

Our author next enumerates different fpecics 
of Cinchona, viz. 

Firft. 

" Morbus, quo hi quatuor argroti laborabant, partim ob 
" anni tempus, quo febre correpti funt, atque partim ob 
" tempeftatis ficcitatem, folito levior erat ; atque Roxbur- 
** gius, propter aegrorum debilitatem, neque evacoantia ad- 
*■ hibebat, nee intermiiiiones expeclabat. 

" xv. Cal. Sept. A. D, 1791, B— Lufitana, habitus 
•' innrmi, nonnullos dies, febre gravi, nunquam ex toto re- 
** mittente, laboraverat. Antimonium tartarifatum ex multa 
" aqua, partitis vicibus, ufque ad vomitionera, adhibait. 
* c Poftero die ■ achma corticis Soymidas, in remiflione mi- 
4e nime adhuc nctabili, ter aflumptaeft. Intermiffio proxima 
*' plenior evafit, atque, ex corticis ufu, biduo poftea morbus 
M ipfe, fimulque diarrhoea qua laboraverat a?gra, ceflarunt. 

" Menfe Septembris, A. D. 1791, J. E — decurio Euro- 
" psus, annos natus quadraginta, febre remittente graviter 
" afFe<ftus eft. Receffus principio fere nulli, ex ufu praepara- 
" torum ex antimonio notabiliores evaferunt ; et asger, quan- 
" quam omni generi intemperantiae deditus, cortice ter fin- 
** gulis intermiiTionibus adhibito, paueis diebus convaluit. 

*• vii. Cal. Sept. A. D. 1791. T. L — annos natus 
" octodecim, quofdam dies febre biliofa laboraverat ; cujus 
" receflfus, etiam poll antimonii tartarifati ufum, parum 
* c notabiles erant. Debilitate auterh urgente, fcrupuli duo 
" corticis Soymidie, omni receffu, ter adhibebantur, et, ad 
" alvum folvendam, lixiva tartarifata. 

•* A cortice autem nihil proficiente, in. Cal. deceflum 
* J efti atque medicamentis idoneis afiumptis, febris prorfus 

** fere, 



[ *47 ] 

Firft. Cinchona Officinalis paniada brachiata; 
Co this fpecies, he obferves, belong the pale, 

quilled, 

** fere, ftatis temporibus, intermiiit. Soymida nunc iteruro 
" adhibita, quatuordecim diebus, morbum penitus fugavit. 

'« Menfe Septembris, A. D. 1791. S — nutrix lagans, 

*' annos nata triginta quinque, febre quotidiana correpta 

•' eft. Alvo, inter priaiam intermiffionem, foda vitriolata 

w«* foluta, morbus triduo cortice Soymida; depulfus eft 5 fed 

«* lac interim fluere ceflaverat. 

"Menfe Septembris, A. D. 1 79 r. Indus, fervus domef- 
" ticusf, febre fingulariter intermittente segrotavit. Sub 
" occafum folis, acceftit febris gravis, quae hora nona vef- 
" pertina intermiiit. Oriente autem fole, itcrum acceffit, 
H atque, horam circiter nonam ante meridiem, denuo inter- 
■■ mittens, aegrum viribus integrum reliquit. Exinde cor- 
V tice Soymidae ter, fmgulis intermiffionibus matutinis, ad 
ts fcrupulos duos adhibito, triduo morbus omnino evanuit. 

M J — R — Europaeus annum agens trigefimum, vitio pul- 
" monis multum debilitatus, ineunte Oclobri febre quotidi- 
tf ana, cui erant acceftiones vefpertinae, afFeclus eft. Tertia 
M intermiflione, duo corticis fcrupuli bis adhibiti alvum 
*' magnopere folverunt. Soymida nihilominus continuata, 
" aeger quatuor diebus a febre valebat. 

** Pridie Iduum Decemb. R — miles Indicus, annos natus 
w triginta, febre quotidiana tredecim dies, medicamentis 
«« vernaculis nihil proficientibus, laboraverat. Intermiifione 
" proxima duo corticis Soymidas fcrupuli ex aqua ter adhi- 
" titi alvum bis cierunt, morbumque levarunt. Cortex 
•' repetitus xgro fanitatem reftituit. 

m Pridie Iduum, Dec. A. D. i*jqi, L — miles Indicus, 

f Vide p. 148. 

L 2 * r annos 



C 148 ] 

quilled, and red barks, which the beft judges 
imagine are from the fame tree; the thick- 
red 

" annos natus viginti tres, antecedentc die, febre quotidiani 
" aTeJius eft. Cortice ter fingulis inter.niffionibus adhibita, 
M alvus fcluta eft, morbufque mox remiiit. 

" Pridie IduCim Dec. S. N — miles Indicus, annos natus 
" qaadraginta, iv. Non. Dccemb. febre correptus erat. Nullis 
" hactenus medicamentis ufus, magis nunc magifque debilb 
" eva feral. Cortex in remiffione ter adhibitus ventrem 
" fohir, triduoque morbum depultit. 

" Pridie Iduiim Dec. A. D. 1791. N — miles Indicus, 
<f annum agens vigefimum quintum, pridie febre quotidiana 
'* affcdtus erat. Cortex Soymidae, ter in unaquaque inter- 
" miflione adhibitus, alvum movit, atque morbum brevi fu- 
•• peravit. 

" viii. Cal. Martii, A. D. 1792. J. V— per biduum 
'* febre iterum * laboraverat. Morbo autem dao acceflus 
•' totidemque remiifiones quotidie erant, ejus inftar paulo 
" fupra defcriptgcr. Cortex Soymidae, in matutinis inter- 
** miifionibus, altera quaque hora adhibitus, triduo febrem 
•« curavit. 

M Circiter medium Februarii, R — infe&or telje xylinae, 
»« annos natus viginti quinque, laborans tumore hypogaftrii 
'* aequali, dolente, quern comitata eft febris omni mane rece- 
w dens, atque alvus aftri&a, ad Roxburgium adduclus eft ; 
'■ cui dixit, fe duodecim ante dies affectum efle dolore circa 
** umbilicum torquente, qui uno aiterove die gravis evafif, 
M atque profundus, et, quafi inter veficae urinaria? fundum 
•« atque inteftinum re&um, federn cepit ; abdomen mox tu- 
M muiile, ipfumque toto corpore febrkitaffe ; caufam autem 

* Vide p. 145, + Vide p. 147. 

u ignoraffc 



C J 49 ] 

red fort being from the trunk, while the pale- 
quilled fort is from the branches, and from 

young 

*' Ignoraflc malorum ; muka denique remeuia vernacula 
44 incalsum adhibuiflc. 

k4 Ei prascepit medicus, ut afTumeret parvas lixivix tar- 
*' tarifara? quantitates, donee fupcrvcnlret catharfis, pro 
" potu communi biberet aquam ex tamarindis coctam cum 
14 faccharo, ec ut interea disera ex oryza famem tolieret. 

44 Alvo his exonerata, meliufcule fe habere fenfit aeger ; 
44 tumori autem nequaquam decrefcenti, veiicatorium ad- 
44 motum eft, alvufque lixiva tartarifata et aqua ex tama- 
44 rindis cum faccharo commifta foluta eft. 

44 Per hoctem febris invaluit. Die autem, a qu rations 
44 incepta, tertio alvus vehementer fluxit. Thje&lone* 
44 purulentae admodum erant, peiTirnc olentes, colore per- 
11 virides. Tumor ftatim fubfedit. 

44 JEgcr maxime debilitatus, per noc~tem, graviter fe- 
44 bricitabat. Mane igitur, cum primum febris fe remifif- 
44 fet, ei pulvis ex Soymidae cortiee et lixiva tartarifata com- 
44 pofitus adhibitus eft, et, die^ progrediente, ter repctitus. 
•*, His factis, alvus purulenta qusedam quater dejecit. Hac 
44 curatione triduo poll a febre valebat, et, cortice nuuc 
44 femel tantum in die adhibito, decern diebus domum re- 
<c diit fanus. 

44 Roxburgius unam tantum occafionem porticjs Soymidse 
44 contra gangrzenam adhibendi nactus eft. Viro diftbluto, 
44 per idem tempus lue Venerea laboranci, fuper mediam 
44 tibiam ulcus erat. Cum Soymidse pulvis eius itomacho 
44 nigratus efTet, extra<5to ufus eft, atque, expetfatione ci- 
44 iius, morbo immunis evafit. Perhibet praterea Roxbur- 
L 3 •iglif, 



young trees. The Spaniards themfelves, he 
adds, employ the red fort. 

Second. 

tt gms r Duffinum chirurgum valetudmarii Madrafienfis pri- 
44 marium hunc corticem contra iitiufmodi mala maximo 
" cum fruclu adhibuifie. 

" His memoratis, Roxburgius ingenue fatetur infignem 
*' tempeftatis ficcitatem, hujus novae Swieteniae corticil 
<{ ufum feliciorem forfitan reddidiffe. Notat prauerea, cor* 
** ticem priirio die alvum plerumque movifle, poftea autem 
" nunquam, neque profecto, prseter morbi curationem, 
•* ullos ex ejus ufu eifectus obfervalTe. Cur, ante cortici* 
M ufum, non faepius, ut mos plerifcjue efl, vomitum et al- 
11 vum movhTet, hanc rationem reddit, nempe ex regionis 
'* natura, ex victu, ex vita, atque ex religione* corpora 
4< Indis effe gracilia, nee plena, nc inflammationibus ob« 
u noxia ; atque remediis, quae ante corticem adhiberi fb- 
-l lent, febres, ut ille putat, in longum fsepe trahi, et iis, 
" aeque ac morbo fere ipfo, aegrotos inrlrmari. 

44 Haec uberius dixi atque fufius eo quod ex his potifli- 
tl mum, quantum polleat hie cortex, apparet. His adduc- 
<4 tus pater meus, cum aegrotos nofocomio Edinburgenli 
" curabat, atque difcentibus de iis praelegebat, nova hujus 
44 corticis tentamina facere voluit. Hac autem regione, 
u cum febris intermittens perrara fit, nobis nulla, quid pro- 
* ficiat cortex nofter, experiendi idonea fatis occafio oblata 
" eft. Nonnullis autem aegrotis adhibita eft. 

44 xiii. Cal. Jan. A. D. 1793. Joannes M'Kay, annum 
*' agens vigefimum tertium, priufquam in nofocomio recep- 
44 tus erat, duodecim dies febre, cujus acceffiones altero 
4 * quoque die redibant, laboraverat. Scd, cum, ab initio 

44 horror 



C i5i J 

Second, Cinchona Cay lb a a ; the Caribbean 



or 



u horror et calor per idem ternpus duravhTent, fudor pror- 
'* sus defecillet, atque mala pectoris, coma, et torpor fe- 
*' brem comitata effent, hcec affeclio minime idonea, in quam 
" novum mcdicamen tentaretur, videbatur. Cortex igitur 
*' Cinchona? rubrze, per duodecim dies adhibitus eft ; cum 
" autem acceffus poft intervalla, licet valdc diffimilia, ad- 
*' hue redirent, acgro, ut Soymidae drachmatn altera qua- 
" que hora fumeret, prefcriptum eft. Alvum torminibua 
" magnopere movit, acceffus autem proximus poilremus 
u erat. Convaluit. 

" Jacobus Grant, annos natus viginti quinque, qui ali- 
" quandiu in nofocomio propter tcftis tumorem manferat, 
"' viii Iduura Junii, A. D. 1793, herba humida vefperi 
M recumbens, fiigore, gravi dyipncea atque anguftiar in 
" faucibus feniu, affectus eft. Haec facile a?theri viniolieo 
'• cefferunt, cortexque Cinchona?, quo vires proftratas re- 
" ficeret, adhibitus eft. v. Iduum iterum frigore, dyfpncea, 
M atque vomitione fanguinolenta, correptus eft. Quinto 
" poftea vefpere horrores, intermittentis inftar, accefferunt. 
«« Ufum corticis Cinchonas, quippe qui acceflionibus nihil 
44 obfturet, intermiik medicus, pulveremque corticis Soy- 
" midse, duplici autem quantitate, \n ejus locum adhibuir. 
" Hoc faclo morbus nunquam poftea rediit. 

" Duabus adolefcentulis, alteri a fingulai i affcclione hyf- 
" terica, convalefcentibus cortex Swietenige Soymidae, ut 
" corpora firmaret, fi non cum utilitate faltem fine incom- 
M modo, adhibitus eft, 

" Vi infuper aftrictoria pollere, fatis co.nftat e mulierc 

u annorum quadraginta fex, qua? leucorrhoea laborabat. 

L 4. JDucbus 



[ «? 3 

or Jamaica bark of Dr. Wright *• This laft, 
our author obferves, poflefies in a higher degree 
the bitter, but is very weak in the aftringent 
power, and ought not to be depended on when 
the other is procurable. 

Third. Cinchona Sanfta Lucia, Jloribus pa- 
niculatis, glabris, laciniis linearibus tubo Ion- 
gioribus, Jlaminibus exertis, foliis ellipticis gla- 
bris; Saint Lucia, or new bark. This is ano- 
ther fort, which lias been introduced into prac- 
tice : but its being pofiefied of ilrong emetic 
and purgative qualities, renders it, in our au- 
thor's opinion, lefs eligible, particularly after 
the paflages have been cleared. Thefe proper- 
ties, he obferves, the Jamaica bark does not 
po fiefs -, which eftablifhes a ftriking difference. 
Fourth. Cinchona Corymbifera, foliis oblon- 

t: Ducbus fenibus ventris fluxu affeclis nihil profecit. Hi 
M autem, omnia, quae alvum aftringunt, experti, morbo 
** non ievato, e nofocomio egreffi funt. 

*' Cortex Soymidae, ut multum, necne, contra putredi- 
•' nem potter, appareiet, quinque segrotis typho putrido 
M laborantibus adhibitus ell. Omnes convalucre. His 
" ventrem adeo non movit, ut, per totum morbum, alvum 
u aliis medicr.mentis ducere opus eilet." Vide Duncan 
Tentam. de SvAetenia Scymida, p. 41. et feq. — Editor. 

* SeePhilof. Tranfaft. Vol. LXVII. page 504; and 
London Medical Journal, Vol. VJII. page 239. 



[ *53 3 

gh, lanccolathy corymbis axillaribia ; of Dr. 
Forfter; is a native of the South- Sea Iflands : 
but of its virtues wc know nothing more, than 
that he fays, " it is like Peruvian bark, bitter 
f « and aftringent." 

Fifth. Cinchona Orixenjis, foliis oppq/itis, to- 
mentqfis, Jlipulis inierfoliaccis, femilanceolatis, flo- 
ribus terminalibus, faniadatis, tomentofis, capjula 
valvis contrariis a vertlce dehifcens; of Dr. Rox- 
burgh. The ftruclure of the capfule, he ob- 
ferves, forms the chief difference between this 
and Cinchona Officinalis, for the feeds are exactly 
as delineated by Gartner, and the reft of the 
definition correfponds with that given by Lin- 
naeus. It is a native of that chain of mountains 
which feparates the northern provinces, or cir- 
cars, from the Mahrattah dominions immedi- 
ately behind them. The bark of this fpecies 
likewife is bitter and aftringent. 

Dr. Roxburgh has alfo found another new fpe- 
cies of Swietenia, a middle-fized tree, the weod of 
which is very heavy, clofe-grained, and yellow ; 
the bark likewife is yellow, and very bitter, but 
pofiefTes much lefs aftringency than that of the S. 
febrifuga, and its aftringt ngy, he obferves, is of a 
peculiar kind, for the colour produced, on an in- 
fufion, with a martial folution, was a dark brown. 

There 



C 154 ] 

There is alfo the bark of another large 
tree, which, at the time of writing this account, 
he tells us, he had under examination, and 
which is likewife very bitter: he Hindoos 
call it JVallurfe. It will, he imagines, form a 
new genus in the clafs Decandria, and order 
Monogynia. Its elfential characters are calyx 
quinquefidus, petala qvinqve, neRarium duplex, 
exterius cyllndricum ore decemfido, anther as gerens, 
interius annular ium, bafm germinh cingens, baua 
monofperma. 

The bark of this tree, we are told, is in high 
repute as a medicine amongft the Hindoo phy- 
sicians ; and gives name to a compound loft ex- 
tract, called Walluvodufay, which they em- 
ploy in a variety of difeafes. 

It alfo pofTerTes powers of a very different 
nature; for, powdered and thrown into pools 
where there are fifh, it foon intoxicates them 
to that degree, that thej" are eafily taken with 
the hand. 

Dr. Roxburgh obferves that the bark of 
Me Ha Azadirachta, already taken notice of*, 
has frequently and fuccefsfully been employed 
as a fubftitute for Peruvian bark, in the cure 

* Page 133. 
1 of 



C '55 3 

of remittents and intermittents ; and that an 
infufion or decoction of its leaves is alfo a good 
anthelmintic, and as fuch employed by the Hin- 
doos. 

The bark of another large tree, which our 
author calls Nauclea Daduga> pofTefTes alfo, he 
tells us, in a confiderable degree, both the bit- 
ternefs and aftringency of Peruvian bark; and he 
thinks it is next in power to that of the Swie- 
tenia febrifuga. Although this tree differs 
widely in its flower from the hitherto known 
fpecies of Cinchona, yet in its parts of fructifica- 
tion it agrees with them, it feems, almoft exa&iy. 



X. An 



C >S6 3 



X. An Account of the Effecls cf Mahogany Wood 
in Cafes of Diarrhoea. By Mr. Francis 
Hughes, Surgeon of the General Infirmary at 

Stafford. Communicated in a Letter to Mr. 
Joan Pearfon, Surgeon of the Lock Hcfptal, 
and by him to Dr. Simmons. 

AN accidental circumftance fir ft fuggefted 
to me the idea that mahogany wood 
might prove ferviceable as a medc ne; for I 
did not then know that any part of the tree h 1 
been employed for medicinal purposes. I 
accordingly induced to make ufe of it in cafes 
of diarrhoea, both in decoction and in the form 
of an extract: ; and after repeated trials, I can 
venture to after t that I have not been difap- 
pointed in the expectations I had formed of its 
efficacy. 

For the decoction I boil an ounce of the 
{havings of Jamaica mahogany wood in two 
pints of water, till one pint of the liquor is 
watted, and then ftrain off the remainder for 
ufe. 

The extract I make ufe of has been prepared 

by 



C i57 ] 

by boiling the (havings of the fame wood in 
repeated affufions of frefh water, in the fame 
proportion and manner as are directed for the 
extract of logwood (extraftum hamatoxyli) of 
the London Pharmacopoeia. The quantity of 
extract obtained in this way amounts to fome- 
thing more than I of the (havings employed. 
The Honduras mahogany wood is of a paler 
colour, and lefs aftringent than the Jamaica, and 
does not yield quite T '- part of extract. 

Both the decoction and extract are very bit- 
ter and' aftringent, leaving a rough nefs in the 
mouth for fome time after they have been tailed. 

The extract, in its appearance, refembles 
gum kino. It diflblves completely in water, 
and in fpirit of wine, and ftrikes a black colour 
with fait of Reel. 

The following are fome of the Cafes in which 
I have employed thefe remedies. 

CASE I. 

In July, 1793, a foldier belonging to a re- 
giment on the lrilh eftabliihment/ who is a na- 
tive of Stafford, was lent hither from his re- 
giment 



C '53 ] 

giment for the recovery of his health. He had 
for iome time been unfit for duty, and was much 
reduced by a diarrhoea, which having come on 
after a fever, had continued feveral months, ancj 
refilled a variety of medicines. 

I gave him an ounce of the decoction thre$ 
times a day, and as it fat eafy on his ftomach, 
and feemed to have a good effect, the dofe, after 
the third day, was increafed to an ounce and £ 
half. He perfevered in the ufe of it during fix- 
teen days ; the diarrhoea gradually fubfided ; 
his appetite and ftrength returned ; and at the 
end of that time he was fufficiently recovered to 
go back to his regiment in Ireland. 

CASE II. 

A woman of a thin, delicate habit, applied 
to me in October, 1 793, on account of a violent 
diarrhoea, for which fhe had taken different me- 
dicines without any good effect. It had come 
on, (he faid, after fitting up a whole night in 
wet clothes, and had continued more than a 
fortnight ; fhe was free from fever. 

I directed her to take pills compofed of fix 

grains 



C 159 J 

grains of the extract, three times a day. With- 
in the fpace of a week the diarrhoea was much 
abated, and fhe had acquired ftrength ; fhe per- 
fevered, however, in the ufe of the medicine 
for the fpace of three weeks, at the end of which 
time the complaint had entirely ceafed. A fluor 
albus, with which fhe had been troubled many 
months, was likewife much abated ; but per- 
haps this latter circumftance ought rather to be 
afcribed to the improved (late of her general 
heal h, than to any fpccific effect of the medi- 
cine. 

CASE III. 

In January, 1794, I was applied to by a man 
fifty years old, who for feveral years had been a 
hard drinker, and was now extremely emaciated ; 
his legs were oedematous; he had no appetite ; 
was fubjecl: to frequent vomiting, and had a 
flight diarrhoea. 

1 gave him aromatic bitters for feveral days, 
but finding no amendment, I determined to 
have recourfe to the mahogany. I gave him 
eigkt grains of the extract, made into pills, 
three times a day. At the end of five days his 

difpofition 



[ i6o j 

difpofition to vomit had ceafed, and he had a 
little appetite. He continued the life of the 
medicine for ten days longer, and was then fo 
much relieved as to be able to walk and ride out 
every day. This ftate of amendment continued 
for a fortnight, when he relapfed into his old 
habit of drinking, and his former fymptoms 
returned. Recourfe was again had to the fame 
medicine, but without effect. 

To the above I could add many other in- 
fiances of the good effects of the extract and 
decoction in cafes of long continued diarrhoea, 
where the complaint feemed to depend on a 
morbid irritability of the ftomach and interlines, 
and where the ufe of tonic and aftringent me- 
dicines appeared to be indicated. The few his- 
tories I have related will, I truft, be Sufficient 
to point out the modes of administering the re- 
medies in queftion, and the effects that may be 
expected from them ; and perhaps will induce 
medical practitioners to extend a trial of their 
efficacy to other difcafes. 

The dofes in which I have hitherto given thefe 
remedies have been fmall ; but much larger 
dofes may be given with fafety, and in many 
cafes will, I am perfuaded, be more efficacious. 

To 



[ 1*1 ] 

To try the effect of a confiderablc dofe on 
the ftomach, I took two ounces of a decoction, 
prepared by boiling two ounces of the fhavings 
in two pints of water to a pint, which is twice 
the ftrength of the' decoction defcribed in 
Cafe 1. and which I have ufually administered. 
At firft I perceived no effect from it ; but at 
the end of ten minutes a difagreeable naufca 
came on, with a flight pain at the ftomach, and 
a glowing fenfation fimilar to that produced by 
the taking a glafs of ftrong wine. Thefe effects 
gradually went off in about half an hour, and I 
felt no other inconvenience from the dofe. 

Stafford, Feb. 12, 1794. 



Vol. VI. M XI. Account 



C 16* 3 



XI. Account of fome Difcoveries made by Mr. 
Galvani, of Bologna ; with Experiments and 
Obfervations on them. In two Letters * from 
Mr.' Alexander Volta, F.R.S. Prof ef or of Na- 
tural Philofophy in the Univerjity of Pavia, to 
Mr. Tiberius Cavallo, F. R. S.—From the Phi- 
lofophical Tranfatlions of the Royal Society of 
London, for the Tear 1793. Part I. 41:0. 
London, 1793. 

THE fubjedt of the difcoveries and re- 
fearches, concerning which I am about 
to write to you, Sir, is animal eletlricity ; a 
fubject which cannot but be extremely intereft- 
ing to you. I know not if you have yet feen 
the work of a Profeffor of Bologna, Mr. Gal- 
vani, which appeared about a year fince, with 
this title ; Aloysii Galvani de Viribus Elec- 
tr kit at is in Motu Mufculari Comment arius. Bo- 
nonise, 1791, in 58 pages, 4to, with four 
large plates ; or at leaft if you have had any 

* In the Philofophical Tranfactions thefe two letters are 
given in French ; for the prefent tranflation of them we are 
indebted to the kindnefs of a friend.— Editor. 

account 



[ ««s ] 

account of it*. It contains one of the moil 
beautiful and furprifing difcoveries, and the 
germe of feveral others. Extracts from this 
work have appeared in different Italian Jour- 
nals, and, among others, in that entitled Gio- 
nale Fifico-medko, published by Dr. Brugna- 
telli, of Pavia, to whom I myfelf have fent two 
long papers, which will be followed by feveral 
others, as I have confiderably extended my ex- 
periments and inquiries on this fubject. The 
letters I now addrefs to you are intended as 
a fketch both of the admirable difcovery of 
Mr. Galvani, and of the progrefs which I have 
been fortunate enough to make in this new path ; 
and I requeft you, Sir, to prefent them to Sir 
Jofeph Banks, Bart, the worthy Prefident of the 
Royal Society, to be communicated, if he 
thinks proper, to that learned body, as a feeble 
teftimony of my gratitude for the honour they 
have done me in electing me one of their num- 
ber, and of my zeal and eagernefs to comply 
with their invitation to communicate to them, 
from time to time, the fruit of my refearches. 
(i.) Mr. Galvani having difTected and pre- 
pared a frog, in fuch a manner that the legs re- 
mained attached to a part of the back bone, 

* See Vol. III. p. 1 80.— Editor. 

M z feparated 



C M ] 

feparated from the reft of the body, folely by 
the crural nerves, which were laid bare, ob- 
served that very lively motions were excited in 
thefe legs, with fpafmodic contractions in all 
the mufcles, every time that (this part of the 
animal being placed at a confiderable diftanc'e 
from the conductor of an electrical machine, 
and under certain circumftances, which I {hall 
explain hereafter) a fpark was drawn from this 
conductor, not on the body of the animal, but 
on any other body, or in any other direction. 
The requifite circumftances, therefore, were, 
that the animal thus diffected mould be in con- 
tact with, or very near fome metal or other 
good conductor, of fufBcient extent, or, what 
was {till better, between two llmilar conduc- 
tors, one of which mould be turned towards 
the extremities of the legs of the animal, or 
fome one of its mufcles ; the other towards the 
fpinc, or its nerves: it was likewife very ad- 
vantageous that one of thefe conductors, which 
the author diftinguimcs by the names of con- 
ductor of the nerves , and conductor of the mufcles, 
and preferably the latter, lhould have a free 
communication with the floor. It was in this 
Situation efpecially, that the legs of the frog, 
prepared as above defcribed, received violent 

{hocks, 



E 165 3 

{hocks, fprang up and contracted with vivacity at 
each fpark drawn from the conductor of the ma- 
chine, although it was at a coniiderable diftancc, 
and although the difcharge was made neither on 
the conductor of the nerves, nor on that of the 
mu teles, but on any other body, equally re- 
mote from them, and having any other com- 
munication through which the difcharge might 
be tranfmitted, for inftance, on a perfon placed 
in the oppofite corner of the room. 

(2.) This phenomenon furprized Mr. Gal* 
vani, perhaps more than it ought to have 
done ; for the power, not only of electric 
fparks when they immediately ftrike the mufcles 
or nerves of an animal, but of a current of this 
fluid traverfing ihem, in any manner whatever, 
with furricient rapidity, its great power, I fay, 
of exciting commotions, was a thing fufficik 
ently known ; befides, it was obvious how, in 
this experiment, and in all thofe of the fame 
kind, related in the fir ft and fecond parts of 
his work, and which are reprefented in the two 
firft plates of figures, his frog became liable to 
be affected by fuch a current. We have only to 
confider that well-known property of electrical 
atmofpheres, or what is called compreffive eleSlri- 
city, by which the fluid of conducting bodies, 
M 3 placed 



C 166 ] 

placed within the fphere of action of an electri- 
fied body, is comprefTed and difplaced, in pro- 
portion to the force and extent of this fphere, and 
kept in this ftate of difplacement fo long as the 
electricity fubfifts in the predominant body; and 
when this is removed, returns to its place gra- 
dually, if the electricity of that body is flowly 
diflipated, or in an inftant if it be deftroyed in- 
ftantaneoufly, by difcharging fuddenly the body 
that contained it. It is this returning current, 
therefore, this reflux of electrical fluid in the 
conducting bodies contiguous to the frog, or 
near it, its fudden pafTage from the conductor 
of the mufcles to the conductor of the nerves, 
or Vtce verfa, through its body, efpecially when 
fuch a current is comprefTed in the fingle and 
narrow channel of the nerves, which excites the 
fpafms and movements in the experiments in 
queftion. Mr. Galvani, who feems not to have 
fufficiently reflected on this property of electrical 
atmofpheres, and who was not aware of the pro- 
digious fenfibility of his frog, fingularly pre- 
pared in the manner above defcribed ([ muft 
here obferve that I have found this fenfibility 
nearly equal in all the other fmali animals, fuch 
as lizards, falamanders, and mice) was ex- 
tremely {truck with fuch an effect, which will 

probably 



C 167 1 

probably not appear fo marvellous to other phi- 
lofophers. This, however, was the firft ftep 
which led him to the grand and beautiful dif- 
covery of an animal electricity, properly fo cal- 
led, and which belongs not only to frogs and 
other animals of cold blood, but likewife to 
every animal of warm blood, quadrupeds, 
birds, &c. ; a difcovery which forms the fubject 
of the third part of his book, a fubject alto- 
gether new, and very interefting. It is thus 
he has opened to us an immenfq field, into 
which I propofe to enter, and purfue my re- 
fearches, after I fhall have dwelt a little more 
on thofe preliminary experiments which relate 
to the action of artificial or extraneous electricity 
on the nervous and mufcular fibres. 

(3.) It was chance that prcfented to Mr. 
Galvant the phenomenon I have been defcri- 
bing, and which aftonifhed him (I repeat it) 
more than it ought to have done. Still who 
would have believed that a ftream of electricity, 
io feeble as not to be rendered fenfible by the 
mofl delicate electrometer, mould be capable 
of affecting (o powerfully the organs of an ani- 
mal, and of exciting in its limbs, cut off one 
or more hours before, movements, nowife in<- 
ferior in ftrength to thofe produced in the living 

animal, 



C 168 ] 

animal, fuch as vigorously darting out its legs, 
fpringing up, &c. to fay nothing of the moil 
violent tonic convulfions ? And yet fuch is the 
flream that affects the little animal, placed, for 
inflance, on a table, near fonie metal, or be- 
tween two good conductors, not infulated, when 
a perfon draws from the prime conductor, fuf- 
pended feveral feet above, a moderate fpark, 
and conveys the difcharge through quite another 
channel. 

(4.) I fay moderate ; for if it be very ftrcng, 
and the conductor, large and highly charged, be 
not at a very considerable diftance from the bo- 
dies on the (able, Httle fparks will be perceptible 
in the interfaces of thefe bodies, efpecially the 
metallic ones, and even in the place where the 
frog forms a ring of communication between 
them, which fparks are evidently produced by 
the returning dream of electricity, of which I 
have already ipoken, (feet. 2.) Or if matters 
do not come to this point inftead of fparks we 
may perceive movements, fufficiently obvious, 
of electrometers placed on the fame table and 
in the fame places. In this cafe, therefore, 
where the electrometer affords the fign, and 
much more in the other, where the above men- 
tioned fparks are obtained, we may obferve, 

that 



[ i6 9 ] 

that even a frog, entire and untouched, or any 
other fmall animal, as a lizard, a moufe, or a 
fparrovv, is feized with ftrong convulsions in all 
its limbs, efpecially in its legs, which dart for- 
wards with vivacity, if the paSThge of the elec- 
tric fluid (the returning Stream) follows the di- 
rection of thefe fame legs from one end to the 
other. So far there is nothing wonderful; the 
circumftance that may excite furprife is in the 
cafe where the ftream of electricity, though no 
longer fenfible, not even to the mod delicate 
electrometer, continues to excite the fame con- 
vulsions, the fame movements, if not in the en- 
tire frog, at lead in its limbs, when difl'ected and 
prepared in the manner practiied by Mr. Gal- 
van i. 

(5.) I have endeavoured, with much atten- 
tion, to determine what might be the leaft elec- 
trical power requisite to produce thefe effects, 
as well in the entire and living frog, as in one 
diflected and prepared in the manner above de- 
fcribed, which is what Mr. Galvani has omitted 
to do. I have preferred the frog to every other 
animal, becanfe ic is endowed with a very dura- 
ble vitality, and it is very eafy to prepare it. 
I have, however, made experiments on other 
fmall animals with the fame view, and with a 
fuccefs nearly Similar. In order to eftimate well 

the 



C *7* ] 

the flrength of the ftream of electricity, I have 
thought it right to fubmit the animal intended 
for experiments of this kind, not to the return- 
ing ftrearris occafioned by electrical atmofpheres 
(Seel. 2.), but to direct electrical diicharges, 
fometimes from a fimple conductor, fometimes 
from a Leyden phial, and in fuch a manner 
that the whole flream muft haye palled through 
the body of the animal. For this purpofe I 
was careful to keep it infulated in one way or 
other, and mod frequently by fixing it, with 
pins, to two flat pieces of foft wood, fupported 
by glafs columns. 

(6.) I have found then, that for the living 
and entire frog the electricity of a fimple con- 
ductor, of a middling fize, is fufrkient, when 
it comes only to be able to give a very weak 
ipark, and to raife Henley's electrometer from 
five to fix degrees ; that if I make ufe of a Ley- 
den phial, likewife of a middling fize, a much 
weaker charge of this produces the effect, fuch 
a one, for example, as yielding not the leaft 
fpark, and being nowife fenfible to the qua- 
drant-electrometer, is fcarcely fufficiently fo to 
Cavallo's electrometer to feparate its little pen- 
duia about i -tenth of an inch. 

(7.) This, as I have j lift now fliown, for a 
2 frogr 



C 171 ] 

frog entire and untouched ; for when it is dif- 
fered and prepared in different ways, and par- 
ticularly after Galvani's manner, in which the 
legs are connected with the dorfal fpine merelv 
by the crural nerves, a much weaker degree of 
electricity, whether from the conductor or from 
the Leyden phial (the fluid being obliged to 
pafs through the narrow paffage of the nerves), 
fails not to excite convulfions, &c. Yes, an 
electricity forty or fifty times weaker, as a 
charge of the phial that is abfolutely impercep- 
tible to the laft-mentioned electrometer (Ca- 
vallo's), and even to that extremely delicate 
one of Bennet ; a charge, that I was able to 
render fenfible only by means of my condenfer, 
and which I think may be eflimated at five or 
fix hundredths qf a degree of Cavallo's elec- 
trometer. 

(8.) Thus then, in the legs of a frog attached 
to the fpine of the back folely by its nerves 
(thefe being laid bare), we have a new fpecies 
of electrometer ; fince electrical charges, which 
from their yielding no fig 11 to the electrometers 
already in ufe, would leem null, afford fuch ob- 
vious ones to this animal electrometer, if I may 
be allowed the exprefiion. 

(9.) When 



[ rji J 

(9.) When we have feen how, in a frog 
thus prepared, ftrong convullions are excited 
by an extremely weak electricity, by an imper- 
ceptible dream of fluid, we ought furely to be 
no longer furprifed, that the animal fhould be 
affected in the fame manner when any body 
whatever difcharges fuddenly the prime con- 
ductor of an electrical machine, and occa- 
fions another ftream of electric fluid, great or 
fmall, of the fluid before difplaced in the con- 
ducting bodies near the frog, and which re- 
eftablifhes itfelf, in the manner already ex- 
plained (Sect. 2.), to pafs rapidly through its 
nerves. Let us fuppofe this returning ftream to 
be fcarcely equal to that which a conductor, ftrf- 
fkiently bulky, throws off directly, with an 
electricity that yields no fpark, and that is al- 
moft infenfihle even to Cavallo's electrometer;, 
or a fmall Leyden phial, charged fcarcely a tenth 
of a degree of this fame electrometer ; let us 
fuppofe, I fay, that the ftream of electricity is 
not ftronger than this, ftill it will be fufHcient, 
as my experiments, above related (Sect. 6. 
and 7.), fhow, to excite the movements in 
queftion. 

(10.) But if, after the experiments juft now 

referred 



C 173 'J 

referred to, we ought no longer to be furprifed 
at thofe of Mr. Galvani, defcribed in the firft 
and fecond parts of his work, how can we avoid 
being fo at thofe entirely new and wonderful 
ones related in the third ? Experiments in which, 
he obtained the fame convulfions and violent 
movements of the limbs, without having re- 
courfe to any artificial electricity, or extraneous 
excitement, by the fimple application of a 
conductor, one end of which was made to, 
touch the mufcles, and the other the nerves or 
fpine of the frog prepared in the manner al- 
ready defcribed. This conductor, he found, 
might be either entirely metallic, or compofed 
partly of metal and partly of other bodies of 
the clafs of conductors, as water, one or more 
perfons, &c, Even wood, the walls and floor 
of the room, might enter into the circle pro- 
vided they were not too dry ; it was only by 
the interpofition of non-conducting fubftances, 
as odafs, rofin, and filk, that the effect was pre- 
vented. Bad conductors, however, did not do 
fo well, and only during the firft moments after 
the animal was prepared, and fo long as the 
vital powers remained in full vigour ; after 
which good conductors only were found to fuc- 

ceed, 



[ i?4 ] 

ceed, and in a fhort time it was found impofli- 
ble to produce the effect unlefs with excellent 
conductors, that is, with conductors entirely 
metallic. He moreover found a great advantage 
from applying a fort of metallic armour, or 
coating, to that portion of the fpine which he 
left attached to the crural nerves, and to the 
nerves themfelves, and particularly from cover^ 
ing this part with a thin leaf of tin or lead. 

(ii.) Mr. Galvani did not confine himfelf, 
in thefe truly aftonifhing experiments, to frogs ; 
he extended his trials with fuccefs, not only to 
feveral other animals of cold blood, but like- 
wife to quadrupeds and birds ; in all of which 
he obtained the fame refults, by means of the 
fame preparations, which confided in laying bare 
fome principal nerve at the part where it pafles 
into a limb fufceptible of motion, and after 
arming the nerve with fome metallic fubflance, 
forming a communication, by means of his con- 
ductor, between this coating and the mufcles 
to which the nerve is diftributed. 

(12.) It was thus he fortunately difcovered, 
and demonftrated to us, in the moft evident 
manner, the exiftence of a real animal ele-fricity 
in all, or almoft all animals. It feems in fact to 
be proved by his experiments, that the electric 

fluid 



[ i75 1 

fluid tends inceffantly to pafs from one part to 
another of a living organized body, and even 
of detached limbs, fo long as any remains of 
vitality fubfift in them ; that it tends to pafs 
from the nerves to the mufcles, or vice verfa, 
and that the mufcular movements are owing to 
a fimilaf transfufion, more or lefs rapid. In 
truth, it would feem that no objections can be 
raifed to this, or to the manner in which Mr. 
Galvani explains it, by a kind of difcharge fi- 
milar to that of the Ley den phial. But a great 
number of new experiments that I have made 
on this fubject, will ferve to fhow that many 
reftrictions mufl be made with regard both to 
the thing itfelf, and to the deductions the au- 
thor has drawn from it ; my experiments like- 
wife will be found conficierably to extend the 
phenomena attributed to this animal electricity, 
and will difplay it to us under a great number 
of new circumftances and combinations. 

(13.) Mr. Galvani, purfuing the idea he has 
formed to himfelf from his experiments, and 
adhering in every refpect to the fuppofed 
analogy of the Leyden phial, and his con- 
ductor, imagines there is naturally an excefs of 
electric fluid in the nerve, or in the interior part 
of the mufcle, and a correfponding defect of this 

fluid 



C r?6 ] 

fluid in the outer part, and vice verfd ; and he 
fuppofes confequently that one end of this con- 
ductor mud communicate with the nerve, which 
he confiders as the conducting wire or hook of 
the phial ; and the other end with the external 
furface of the mufcle. All the figures of his 
third and fourth plates, and all his explanations 
relate to this. But if he had a little varied his 
experiment^ as I have done, he would have 
ieen that this double contact of nerve and of 
rnufcle, this circuit which he imagines, is not 
always ncceffary. He would have found, as I 
have, that the fame convulfions, the fame move- 
ments may be excited in the legs and other 
limbs of frogs, and of every other animal, by 
placing metallic fubftances in contact with two 
parts of a nerve only, or with two mufcles, or 
even with different parts of a fingle and Ample 
mufcle. 

(14.) It is true we are very far from fucceed- 
ing fo well in this way as in the other, and that 
in this cafe it is neceflary to have recourfe to an 
artifice, of which we fhall have occafion to 
fpeak more fully hereafter, and which con aits 
in employing two different metals ; an artifice, 
which is not abfolutely neceflary when the ex- 
periment is conducted according to Galvani's 

method 



r 177 3 

method above defcribed (Sect. 10 and 11), at 
lead fo long as vitality remains in full vigour in 
the animal, or in its detached limbs; but, at 
any rate, fince by arming the nerves only, or 
the mufcles only, with different metals, we are 
able to excite contractions in the latter, and 
movements in the limbs, we mull conclude that 
if there are cafes (and this may perhaps (till be 
very doubtful) where the pretended difcharge 
between nerve and mufcle (Seel:. 12 and 13.) is 
the caufe of the mufcular movements, there are 
likewife many and more frequent circumftances, 
where the fame movements are obtained by 
iquite another play, quite another circulation of 
the electric fluid. 

(15.) Yes, it is quite another play of the 
electric fluid, of which we may be faid rather to 
difturb than to reftore the equilibrium, info- 
much as it pafTes from one part to another of a 
nerve, a mufcle, &c. as well internally by their 
conducting fibres, as externally by means of the 
metallic conductors that are applied, not in 
confequence of any refpective excefs or defect, 
but by a peculiar action of thefe fame metals, 
when they are of different kinds. It is thus I 
have difcovered a new law, which is not fo 
much a law, of animal electricity as a law of 
• Vol. VI. N common 



C 178 J 

common electricity ; to which wc muft attribute 
the moft part of the phenomena, which, from 
the experiments of Galvani, and from feveral 
others which I made myfelf, feemed to belong 
to a true fpontaneous animal electricity, but 
which in truth do not : they are really the effects 
of a very feeble artificial electricity, which is 
excited in a way never before fufpected, by the 
fimple application of two coatings of different 
metals, as 1 have already hinted, and which I 
(hall explain better elfewhere. 

(16.) I think it right here to fay, that at thp 
difcovery of this new law, of this, till now, 
unknown artificial electricity, I was miflruftful 
of every thing that feemed to me to demonflrate 
a natural electricity, in the ftrict fenfe of the 
term, and that I was on the point of giving up 
this idea. But upon carefully reconlidering all 
the phenomena, and repeating the experiments 
under this new point of view, I found thatfome 
of them fupport fuch an idea, (thofe, for in- 
ftance, in which there is no need of different 
coatings, or even of any coating, a fimple me- 
tallic wire, or any other conducting body, per- 
forming the office of conductor between the 
nerve, and one of the mufcles connected with 
k, being capable of exciting convulfions in the 

latter). 



C ^79 ] 

latter), (Se£t. io, &c.) and that thus a natural 
animal and properly organic electricity fubfifts, 
and cannot be entirely overturned. The phe- 
nomena which eftablifh it, although much more 
limited, are however fufficient to demonftrate 
its exiftence, as I have juft now mentioned, and 
as will more clearly be mown hereafter. 

(17.) What will perhaps be found more dif- 
agreeable is, that we mult likewife confine with- 
in narrower limits its influence in the animal 
ceconomy, and give up the finefl ideas we had 
formed of it, and which feemed to be about 
leading us clearly to explain mufcular motion. 
My experiments, varied in every manner pof- 
fible, ihow that the motion of the electric fluid 
excited in organs, does not act immediately on 
the mufcles ; that it does nothing more than ex- 
cite the nerves, and that the latter, put into 
action, excite in their turn the mufcles. What 
this action of the nerves is ; how it propagates 
itfelf from one part of a nerve to another ; how 
it paffes to the mufcles, and how the motion of 
the latter refults from it ; thefe are problems, 
in the explanation of which we are not farther 
advanced than before the difcovery in queflion. 
(18.) I come now to the experiments that 
prove all the aflertions I have advanced in thefe 
N % laft 



[ i«o ] 

laft paragraphs. From a great number I fhall 
felect only a few, which feem to me the bed 
calculated to eftablifh certain principles, for the 
moft part new and different from thofe adopted 
by Mr. Galvani. But I mud firfl: fay a few words 
more concerning the experiments of this writer. 
I know not whether he has made others, but 
thofe he has defcribed in his work are included 
in too narrow a circle ; in all of them the ob- 
ject is to lay bare and infulate the nerves, and 
to eftablifh a communication, by means of con- 
dueling bodies, between thefe nerves and the 
mufcles that are dependent on them (as may be 
feen in all the figures of the four plates annexed 
to his work), in order to excite convulfions and 
movements of the mufcles, by the action of the 
electric fluid. He fuppofes therefore, in every 
cafe, and he explains himfelf pretty clearly on 
this point, that the transfufion of the electric 
fluid that is produced, whether by artificial elec- 
tricity, or by natural animal electricity, mud 
take place from the nerves to the- mufcles, or 
vice ver/a ; that thefe two limits at leaft muft 
be included in order for the mufcular move- 
ments to take place; and in truth all the expe- 
riments he has defcribed feem to prove this. 
But then they are confined, as I have juft now 
i faid, 



faid, within a circle that is too limited, and be- 
yond which he has never, or fcarcely ever, ex- 
tended his inquiries. By varying the experi- 
ments of this kind in different ways, I have 
fhown, that neither the one nor the other of 
thofe conditions, viz. the laying bare and in- 
flating the nerves, and the touching fimulta- 
neoully thefe and the mufcles, in order to pro- 
cure the fuppofed difcharge, are abfolutely ne- 
cefTary (Seel:. 13.). It is fufficient, when, for 
instance, we have laid bare the ifchiatic nerve of 
a dog, lamb, &c. if we pafs aftream of electri- 
city from one part of this nerve to the other, 
even though it be near, and leave all the reft 
untouched and free ; it is fufficient, I fay, to do 
this in order to excite in the limb very flrong 
convullions and movements ; and this whether 
we employ an extraneous artificial electricity, or 
excite the eledtric fluid that is inherent in the 
nerve itfelf. Here is the manner in which I 
make thefe experiments. 

(19.) Experiment A. I comprefs, with a 
pair of forceps, the ifchiatic nerve a little above 
its infertion into the thigh, and I apply, a few 
lines higher up, a piece of money, or a plate of 
metal, on this fame nerve, carefully feparated 
from the parts that adhere to it, and fupported 
N 3 by 



[ x8fi 

by a thread, a plate of glafs, a ftick of fealing 
wax, a piece of dry wood, or any other fubftance 
that is a bad conductor. Then placing the belly 
of a Leyden phial, very weakly charged, on the 
forceps^ I bring the hook into contact with the 
other piece of metal ; and the moment the dis- 
charge takes place, although it be too feeble to 
produce the leaft fpark, convuKions take place 
in all the mufcles of the thigh and leg, the 
whole limb being agitated and fpringing up 
with more or lefs violence. And yet the whole 
of this leg, and even a part of the nerve which 
paffes to it, are, as we fee, out of the track 
which the electric fluid takes in its pafTage, fo 
that only a fmall portion of the nerve can have 
been irritated ; and yet this is fufficient to occa- 
sion the convulfion of the mufcles. 

(20.) Experiment B. The fame effects, 
that is to fay, fimilar convulfions and motions 
of the leg, take place, without our having re- 
courfe to an extraneous electricity, by the dif- 
charge which takes place, in a certain manner 
naturally, when we apply, as above, the fame 
forceps, or a plate of filver, to one part of the 
nerve, and a plate of fome other metal, and 
above all, of tin or lead, to another part, and 
then bring about a fimple communication be- 

tween 



C 1*3 1 

twccn them, either by an immediate contact, or 
by the interpolation of a third piece of metal 
made to perform the office of a conductor. 

(21.) Thus we fee that the fame effects, that 
is, convulfions and violent mufcular contrac- 
tions, take place without any difcharge of elec- 
tric fluid between the nerves and mufcles, in 
the manner Mr. Galvani fuppofes ; and without 
requiring one end of a conductor to communi- 
cate with the one, and the other end with the 
other. Neither is the other condition, that of 
laying bare the nerve, and freeing it of its ad- 
hefions, at all more neceflary, as will appear 
from the following experiments. 

Experiment C. I apply coatings, or plates, 
of different metals, (and it is this difference of 
coatings that is effential) (Sect. 14. and 15.J to 
an entire and living frog, that is covered with 
its fkin, and, in fhort, is untouched. I apply, 
for example, a thin piece of tin-foil on its back, 
or its loins, and I place a piece of filver money 
under its thighs, or its belly, flightly compreffing 
it ; this done, I Hide forward the piece of mo- 
ney till it comes into contact with the tinfoil, or 
I form a communication between the two metals 
by means of a piece of iron wire, or any other 
metal ; and at that inffant convuliive motions 
N 4 take 



C 184 3 

take place in all the mufcles of the belly, thighs, 
and back, with violent tremors of the legs, 
contraction and curvature of the fpine, &c. 
which convulsions and fpafms, although nearly 
univerfal, are however mod considerable in the 
limbs and mufcles contiguous to the coatings, 
and ftill more fo in thofe which are dependent 
on the principal nerves neareft to the two 
metals. 

(22.) Thefe experiments fucceed in fome 
Other animals; in fifties, and particularly in eels, 
in none of which is it neceffary to remove the 
ilcin, though it does not fail, in a fmall degree, 
to lefTen the effect. This is why, by removing 
it, at leaft in part, particularly in the frog, we 
obtain the effects with more certainty, and to a 
greater degree. We like wife gain fomething, 
in this refpedt, by cutting off the head of the 
frog, and thrufting a large pin into the fpinal 
marrow ; we then excite, by means of different 
coatings in the manner above defcribed, ftronger 
movements, or at leaft fuch as are more ob- 
vious, becaufe they are no longer confounded 
with the movements the animal gives itfelf 
while living. 

(23.) If it be advantageous, as we have feen, 
to take off the fkin of frogs, although very thin 

and 



C '8j 3 

and pretty moid, it is much more fo, and even 
neceflary, to remove it from almoit all the other 
animals, as lizards, falamanders, ferpents, tor- 
toifes, and more elpecially from quadrupeds and 
birds, that are furnimed with a drier and much 
thicker fkin, to fucceed in theie experiments. 
The following, therefore, is the mode I adopt. 

Experiment D. I fatten to a table, by 
means of fome large pins, a lizard, a moufe, a 
fowl, &c. and after making an incifion through 
the fkin, and other integuments, to the bare 
ftefh, on the back of the animal, I turn back 
the integuments on each fide ; I do the fame on 
the thigh or the leg; after which I apply the 
two metallic coatings on the expofed parts, viz. 
on one the tin foil, and on the other a ipoon or 
a piece of money; I then form a communica- 
tion between the two coatings, and every time I 
do this I excite ftrong contractions in the ad- 
jacent mufcles, and particularly in thofe of the 
thigh and leg, which moves and agitates itfelf 
with great violence. Thefe convuliions are 
much more confiderable when the tin foil is ap- 
plied near the ifchiatic nerve, and the piece of 
filver on the gluteus mufcle, or on that named 
gastrocnemius ; and the effects are {till greater 
if the nerve itfelf is laid bare, and coated with 

the 



f 186 ] 

the tin foil ; if, leaving it attached only to the 
mufcles to which it is diftributed, we deprive it 
of every other adherent part ; or if, in fhort, 
we feparate the entire limb from the reft of the 
bod}'-, with its nerve hanging out, and fubmk 
it in this date to our experiments. 



Stftemher 1 3, 1792* 



I am, &c. 

A. Volta. 



SECOND LETTER. 

(24.) It will be fufficiently underftood that 
what I have faid with refpect to the ifchiatic 
nerve, and the leg, is applicable to the brachial 
nerve and to the arm, as well as to every other 
nerve relatively to the mufcles under the in- 
fluence of that nerve. 

(25.) Thefe laft preparations are analogous to 
thofe of Mr. Galvani ; and they clearly prove 
that it is advantageous to lay bare the nerves, 
and ftill more fo, to detach them all round from 
the adherent parts ; but they are far from mow- 
ing 



[ '8 7 ] 

ing that this is a neceffary condition, fince wc 
never fail to obtain the fame convulfions and 
movements of the limbs when we limply lay 
bare the mufcles, and leave the nerves covered 
and concealed under them in their natural ftate, 
as all my other experiments above related (Sett. 
21, 22, 23.) lerve to (how. 

(26.) After thefe trials on reptiles, birds, and 
fmall quadrupeds, I proceeded to other and 
larger animals, as rabbits, dogs, lambs, and 
bullocks ; and I not only fucceeded in obtaining 
fimilar effedts in all the ways above defcribed, 
but even ftronger and more durable ones, by 
reafon that the vital heat maintained itfelf in 
thofe large animals, and in their limbs, a longer 
time. For I ought not to omit to fay, that if 
in the mod part of animals of cold blood, and 
particularly in frogs, the vital principle fubfifts 
in detached limbs feveral hours, that principle 
which renders them fo fenfible to the weakefh 
electrical irritation, it hardly continues beyond 
a few minutes in animals of warm blood, and 
commonly difappears before the whole of this 
animal heat is diflipated. 

(27.) Having had fuch fuccefs with my ex^ 
periments on large and fmall animals of every 
kind, in fome inftances alive and entire; in 

others 



[ i?8 ] 

others deprived of their fkin, or their head, or 
differed in different ways ; and having obtain- 
ed fimilar effedts in their large detached limbs, 
and almofl: always without the preparation re- 
quired by Mr. Galvani, that is to fay, without 
laying bare the nerves, I was defirous of going 
frill farther, and of making fimilar trials on 
fmaller limbs, on a fingle mufcle, and even on 
fmall portions of mufcles ; and the frefh fuc- 
cefs I had in thefe trials led me to other difco- 
veries, which I will foon mention, after having 
delcribed fome of thefe experiments. 

(23.) Experiment E. I cut off, in fome 
inflances, the leg and thigh of a frog, in others, 
the leg only, and in fome half or a quarter of 
a leg ; and on applying, as ufual. to one part 
of the amputated portion the tin foil, and to the 
other the plate of fiiver, and forming a commu- 
nication between thefe two coatings, I conftant- 
ly excited convulfions and movemenrs;- I have 
even feparated a fingle mufcle, for inftance the, 
gluteus, or the gaftrocnemius, and fometimes 
only a portion of mufcle nor larger than a bar- 
ley-corn, and yet the fame effects, that is to 
fay, very ftrong contractions of thefe mulcles, 
or parts of mufcles, have been produced by 
means of two different coatings, &c. 

Expe- 



C iS 9 ] 

Experiment F. I have repeated the fame 
experiments on a leg, on a half or a third part 
of the leg, on a fingle mufcle, or part of a 
mufcle, of a fowl and other birds ; on a Dice of 
the gluteus of a rabbit, a lamb, &c. and I have 
had the fame effects as long as the flefh preferved 
a fenfible heat. (Sect. 26.) 

(29.) Thus then we are able to excite very 
ftrong contractions in the muicles of animals of 
warm as well as of cold blood, and in every 
detached portion of mufcular fleih ; and this by 
means of the fimple artifice of different metal- 
lic armours or coatings, applied to the mufcle 
itfelf, without any preparation of the nerves, 
and even without laying them bare. We have 
befides feen that we can excite thefe ef- 
fects quite as well, and by the fame means of 
metallic coatings applied to two neighbouring 
parts of the fame nerve, (Seel. 19, and 20. Ex- 
periments A. and B.) whence I have reafon to 
conclude, that there is no neceffity for a dif- 
charge of electric fluid to take place between 
nerve and mufcle, or for any tranfmiflion of it 
from the interior to the exterior part of the lat- 
ter by means of the nerve and metallic conduc- 
tor, as Mr. Galvani fuppofes, or vice verjai 
and that there is no comparifon to.be made be- 
tween 



[ *9° 1 

twcen the mufcle and the Leyden phial and its 
difcharge, in the experiments in queflion. In 
h:z y what reiemblance or analogy is there to 
the Leyden phial, where the two plates of me- 
tal, a communication between which is formed 
he cond. tre applied very near to each 

other on the externa] ftirfacc of the fame nerve, 
(Experiments A. and B.) or on the external fur- 
face of two mufcles, or even of the fame mufcle 
(Experiments C. D. E. F.); it inufl: be c 
felled i: would be in vain to attempt to fupport 
any analogy between any of thefe experiments 
and the Leyden phial. 

(30.) ExPEKiMEHfG. Having placed two 
coatings, one of filver leaf, the other of tin 
on exactly correfponding parts of the two 
thighs of a frog, I excited contractions of the 
des, and ual mdticras of the legs, at 

the infant I formed a communication between 
the twc \ 5 by means of the conductor. 

(31.) Is it thus, I afk, that the difcharge of 
two Leyden phials takes place, by forming a 
communication between their homologous fur- 
faces ? Let us lay afide, therefore, thefe ideas 
of phial and difcharge, and every forced expla- 
nation, and let us h ;~. that in thefe and 
other analogous ex :s, a tranirnifTion of 
3 the 



C 191 3 

the electric fluid takes place from one to an- 
other of two parts properly coated ; a tranf- 
million determined, not by a relative excefs of 
this fluid, which cannot naturally be fuppofed 
between parts that are fimilar, but by the di- 
verfity of thefe fame coatings, which muft be 
of different metals, as I have taken care already 
to point out, (Seel:. 20, and 21. Experiments 
B. and C.) and uniformly to inculcate in the 
fubfequent parts of my paper. 

In fact, 

(32.) Experiment H. If two mufcles, or 
two parts of the fame mufcle, are fimilarly 
coated, that is, with two plates of the fame 
metal, both of them equal in temper and hard- 
nefs, in foftnefs or rigidity, in the roughnefs or 
fmootfynefs of their furface, and both arc ap- 
plied in the fame manner, it will be to no pur- 
pofe to bring about a communication between 
them by means of a conductor, as no convul- 
lion, no motion will take place. 

(33.) I confefs it is not eafy to conceive how 
and why the fimple application of two diffi- 
milar coatings, I mean of two different metals, 
to fimilar parts of the animal, and even to two 
parrs very near to each other of any one mufcle, 
fhall difturb the equilibrium of the electric 

fluid, 



[ I 9 2 ] 

fluid, and drawing it from its (late of repofe and 
inactivity, (hall induce it to pafs inceffantly 
from one part to another ; which transflux takes 
place as foon as a communication, by means of 
the conductor, is formed between thefe two dif- 
fimilar coatings, and continues all the time this 
communication fubfifts. But conceivable or 
not, and whatever may be the caufe, it is a fact 
that the experiments I have already related fuf- 
ficiently prove, and which will be confirmed 
by many others, to the defcription of which I 
flia.ll endeavour to add fome explanation. It is 
a fact, to be added to what we already know in 
electricity ; a fact which mud furely appear ex- 
traordinary, and difficult to be reconciled with 
the laws commonly eftablifhed. It is truly a 
new and very fingular law, which I have dif- 
covered ; a law that belongs not properly to 
animal electricity, but to common electricity, 
fince this transflux of the electric fluid, a trans- 
flux, not momentary, as a difcharge would be, but 
which continues as long as thecommunication be- 
tween the two coatings fubfiits, and takes place 
whether thefe coatings are applied to living or 
dead animal fubftances, or to other conductors 
not metallic, but fufficiently good, as water, or 
moift bodies. But before I proceed to the ex- 
periments 



C *93 ] 

periments which dccifively prove all that I have 
advanced, I think it right to offer a few more 
remarks on thofe I have already deicribed (Sect. 

20—32.). 

(34.) It would feem from thefe that by means 
of the fimple artifice of coatings of different 
metals fuitably applied, we are able to excite 
very ftrong convuifions in every mufcle of every 
animal, fo long as it continues to poffefs any de- 
gree of vitality. Such a conclufion, however, 
would be too general, my experiments having 
taught me that it is to be admitted only with cer- 
tain restrictions, as well with refpedt to the claffes 
and genera of animals, as with refpect to the dif- 
ferent mufcles of each animal. 

(3 5. J And firft with refpect: to the different 
claffes of animals ; although it has uniformly 
happened that all the quadrupeds, birds, rlfh.es, 
reptiles, and amphibious animals, which have 
been Submitted to my experiments, exhibited 
the phenomena above defcribed, it is no lefs 
certain that worms in general, and feveral fpe- 
cies of infects, remained unaffected. I have in 
vain tried with worms, leeches, fnails, oyfters, 
and different caterpillars ; I have not even been 
able to excite the leaft motion in them by fmall 
and moderate fparks, and difcharges of artificial 

Vol. VI. O electricitv. 



[ *94 ] 

electricity. Here is the manner in which I pro- 
ceeded. 

Experiment I. I applied the tin foil, and 
filver leaf, to different parts, as well external as 
internal, of thefe fnails, leeches, earth worms, 
&c. and in the belt way I was able ; I then 
formed a communication between thefc metallic 
coatings, fometimes by bringing them into con- 
tact with each other, and at others by means of 
another metal that performed the office of a 
conductor ; but by neither of thefc means could 
I ever obtain the leaft motion in any part of the 
body. 

Experiment L. I conveyed through their 
bodies, both when infulated and not infulated, 
difcharges of a Leyden phial of fufficient ftrength 
to excite a moderate fpark, and to give me a 
flight Ihock, but they were not fenfibly affected 
by it ; no motions or convulfions were produced. 

(36.) Does it follow from hence that the 
more imperfect animals, the whole clafs of 
worms, and feveral fpecies of infects, are defti- 
tuteof that fallibility and irritability, that elec- 
trical mobility, if I may be allowed the expref- 
fion, with which other more perfect animals are 
endowed ? I am unwilling to draw this general 
conclulion from my experiments, becaufe I have 

as 



C '95 3 

as yet extended them only to a fmall number cf 
worms and infedls ; and with regard to the lat- 
ter, I think it right to obferve that I have fuc- 
ceeded, without much difficulty, with craw 
fifh, beetles, grafshoppers, butterflies, and flics. 
It may not be ufelefs that I explain one of the 
ways in which I fucceed with thefe animals, as 
they are with difficulty fubmitted to experi* 
ments, on account of their minutenefs, or of 
the fcales with which they are covered. 

Experiment M. After cutting off the head 
of a fly, a butterfly, beetle, &c. I flit open, with 
a penknife or fmall fciflars, the whole length of 
the corflet, and introduce deep into the flit, near 
the neck, a bit of tin foil, (what is improperly 
called filver paper is very fit for this purpofe) 
and a little below I introduce, and likevvife deep 
into the flit, a bit of filver plate, or fmall fil- 
ver coin ; and when I bring the latter into con- 
tact with the piece of tin foil, the legs begin to 
bend and tremble, and the other parts, and 
even the trunk of the animal, are thrown into 
agitation. It is very amufing to excite in this 
manner the chirping of a grafshopper, &c. 

(37.) After what I have juft now faid, I 
fliould be wrong to rank infe&s among the ani- 
mals that are deftitute (like the clafs of worms 
O 2 above 



[ i 9 6 ] 

above mentioned) of the electrical property in 
queftion. At the utmoft, if caterpillars appear 
to be fo, it may be faid that in this ftate of lar- 
va, before they have attained, by their meta- 
morphofis, a perfect ftate, and acquired new 
organs, &c. they may be compared in many 
refpects to worms, and, like thefe, are not en- 
dowed with electric fenfibility. 

(38.) In fhort, if I may be allowed to (late 
here what I think, thofe animals only that have 
very diftinct limbs, with joints, and mufcles 
fitted for the motion of thofc joints, or, in other 
words, mufcles that are called flexors, or le- 
vators, and nerves proper to regulate them, fuch 
animals only, I fay, are fenfible to, and become 
feized with real fpafmodic contractions in con- 
fequence of either fmall difcharges of artificial 
electricity, or a weak current of fluid occa- 
fioncd (imply by different metallic coatings ; 
which contractions and fpafms bring on the mo- 
tion, and even a violent agitation of the faid 
limbs. On the contrary, worms, and fuch in- 
fects as have not fufficiently diftinct limbs, or 
joints properly fo called, or which are deftitutc 
of flexor mufcles, or enjoy only a vermicular 
motion, are nowife affected by fuch an electri- 
city. The motions of thefe animals depend on 

a di fie rent 



[ i97 ] 

a different animal ceconomy; on a different mc- 
chanifrrij which in fcveral fpccies has been very 
well difcovered and explained. Such are my 
ideas, flill indeed fomewhat vague, and founded 
only on a few experiments ; it is the fequel of 
thefe that mud either confirm or rectify them. 

(39.) With refpect to different mufcles in the 
fame animal, I am able to advance fometbing 
more certain. I fay then, that all mufcles are 
very far from being fufceptible of contraction 
from the weak electricity in queftion. There is 
a great diftinction to be made with regard to 
their functions in the animal ceconomy; all of 
them are not fubject to the empire of the will, 
and fitted for fpontaneous movements : and, 
ftrictiy fpeaking, it is only thofc which are fo 
that are capable of fpafmodic contractions by 
the means above defcribed ; yes, the mufcles 
fubject to the will arc the only ones I have found 
fufceptible of irritation and motion, by the ac- 
tion of that weak current of electric fluid occa- 
fioned by the fimple contact of two different 
metals. The other mufcles, over which the 
will has no direct power, as thofe of the fto- 
mach, interlines, &c. are not at all fo, not even 
the heart, though in other refpects fo irritable. 
We muft except, however, the mufcles of the 
O 3 diaphragm, 



L 198 ] 

diaphragm, (and I conjectured it before I made 
the trial) thefe being of the number of thofe 
whofe motion depends on the will. 

Experiment N. It is very furprifing that 
a flice of good mufcular flefti, cut, for inftance, 
from the thigh of a lamb killed half an hour or 
an hour before ; that this piece, I fay, of 
inufcle, almofl quite cold, and which is no 
longer fenfible to the action of any mechanical 
or chemical ftimulus, mould be fo powerfully 
affected by the electric fluid conveyed from one 
part of it to another, as to be feized with very 
ftrong fpafmodic contractions; and that, on the 
contrary, the heart recently taken out of the 
fame animal, and itill warm and very irritable, 
fhould,when treated in the fame manner, with the 
belt adapted metallic coatings, fuffer no altera- 
tion upon our making a communication between 
the two metals by means of the conductor ; and 
that its pulfations, when weakened or flackened, 
or altogether fufpended, fhould not beincreafed, 
or even revived, notwithstanding all this takes 
place from the application of the flighted me- 
chanical or chemical itimulus. 

(40.) The electric fluid, therefore, which 
feems to be the ftimulus appropriated to the 
mufcles of the will, is nowife fo to the heart, 

or 



C 199 3 

or to the other mufcles formed for involuntary 
vital and animal functions. But what will be 
faid if I make it appear that it is not the imme- 
diate or efficient caufe of motion in the volun- 
tary mufcles ; that even in thefe it is a mediate 
caufe only, the nerves alone being directly af- 
fected by it ? And yet this is what I have learned 
from feveral experiments ; experiments that 
have obliged me to give up the fineft and mod 
extenfive ideas I had formed on the fubject. 
I was fond of thinking, with Mr. Galvani, that 
as often as a current of the electric fluid, put in 
.motion in the organs, was impelled with a cer- 
tain degree of flrength to the mufcles, this fluid 
did itfelf perform the office of a ftimulant, and 
excited the irritability which is peculiar to them; 
that every mufcular movement was executed in 
confequence of a fimilar irruption of electrical 
fluid into the mufcles, either by means of arti- 
ficial electricity, or by 'putting in motion the 
natural artificial electricity ; that, in fliort, even 
the motions which are performed naturally in 
the living animal machine, at leafl the volun- 
tary motions, acknowledged the fame caufe, 
that is to fay, the immediate action of the elec- 
tric fluid on the mufcles. But I repeat it, I 
have found myfelf obliged, with regret, to 
O 4 give 



[ 2 00 ] 

give up all thofe fine ideas by which it feemed 
poflible to explain things to admiration. Yes, 
we muft considerably limit the action of electri- 
city in animals, and coniider it under another 
point of view, that is to fay, as being capable 
of exciting, of itfelf, the nerves, as 1 have al- 
ready hinted, and as I fhall now proceed to 
prove. 

(41.) In the fir ft place, then, that it can act, 
and that it really does act, on the nerves, and 
that the latter, excited by it, excite in their turn 
the- mufclcs connected with them, without even 
the electrical ftream's arriving at thofe mufcles, 
is a fact which no longer ftands in need of proofs 
after thofe furnifhed by the experiments A. and 
B. (Sect. 19. and 20.) and even by an expe- 
riment of Mr. Galvani, which, according to 
his account, was the foil he made, and the ori- 
gin of all his other experiments. It is fufE- 
ciently obvious that the electric current, in the 
experiment in quefbion, as well as in thofe made 
by me, and which I have juft now referred to, 
pervades only a part of the crural nerve, but 
not one of the mufcles of the leg ; and yet as 
the latter depend on the nerve, they are af- 
fected with convulfions. 

(42. J But I go farther, and maintain, that 

even 



[ *oi ] 

even in the cafes where the electrical current (it 
will be clearly understood that I am fpeaking 
only of weak artificial difcharges, or of the 
current which takes place by the fimple appli- 
cation of coatings of different metals) ftrikes 
and penetrates mufcles fufceptible of move- 
ment, it is not by irritating the latter imme- 
diately that it occafions them to contract, but 
by ftimulating their nerves. This is what is 
mown by my experiments C. and D. (Seel. 21. 
and 23.) where, upon the tin foil and piece of 
filver being applied immediately to the mufcu- 
lar parts of the animal, whether the animal or 
only a detached portion of it is the fubjeft of 
the experiment, it is not fo much the mufcles 
covered by the two metallic coatings that fufTer 
the moll violent contractions, as thofe which 
depend on fome principal nerve, to which one 
or other of the coatings is contiguous. It is in 
this manner that in the frog, when the tin foil 
is applied on the loins, where the crural nerves 
lay at but little depth, the mufcles of the legs 
are feized more than any others with ftrong con- 
vulfions, more fo even than thole contiguous 
to the other coating, that is to fay, to the piece 
of filver. I have already pointed out the fi.me 
thing in quadrupeds, dogs, lambs, &c. with re- 
gard 



[ 202 ] 

gard to the ifchiatic nerve, (Experiment D.) 
and I have only to add, that the leg never fails 
to be convulfed when this nerve does not lay 
too deep under the flefh and other integuments, 
and one of the coatings is properly applied to 
this part ; even although the other coating 
ihould be made to correfpond neither with the 
gluteus nor any mufcle of the leg, but with any 
other mufcle whatever, provided it be not at too 
great a diftance. Here is another proof why 
this happens : 

Experiment O. If we apply in a frog, or 
any other fmall animal, the tin foil the whole 
length of the fpine of the back, from which 
proceed all the nerves of the trunk and limbs, 
and the other coating to any other part what- 
ever, all the limbs become affe&ed ; the mufcles, 
not only of the legs, but of the belly and back, 
experience fpafmodic contractions, and the 
trunk itfelf becomes curved ; in a word, the 
convulfions are general. The experiment is 
(till more ftriking in a lizard than in a frog, and 
I lhall therefore defcribe it. 

Experiment P. After cutting off the head 
of a lizard, and laying bare the mufcles of the 
back by removing the fkin, I apply a piece of 
tin foil to the mutilated end, in fuch a manner 

that 



C 203 ] 

that the tin foil is fpread beyond the edges of 
the wound, fo as to rife a little over the moul- 
ders, and I place a piece of money on the mid- 
dle of the fpine ; this done, I Aide forward the 
piece of money till I bring it into contact ivith 
the tin foil. At that inftant the legs move, the 
tail twills itfclf, and the whole body of the ani- 
mal becomes agitated, and darts from right to 
left, and from left to right. Is not this becaufe 
the upper part of the fpinal marrow, the prin- 
cipal fource of the nerves, is irritated ? 

(43.) Nearly the fame effects may be obtained 
by a fimilar operation on a moufe, a fmall bird, 
&c. but in thefe it is necefTary to remove not 
only the fkin and other integuments, but like- 
wife fome of the flefh, and this becaufe their 
back being more fleftiy, the principal nerves of 
the fpine are more concealed by this flefh, and 
by the bones alio of the vertebral tube. It is 
in fact eafy to comprehend that the current of 
electric fluid, occaiioned by the two coatings, 
penetrating only to a certain depth the paits of 
the animal covered by thefe coatings, can hard- 
ly reach the fpinal marrow, or the principal 
branches of the nerves that enter into the in- 
terior parts of the limbs; if the bones, flefh, 
and other intervening integuments are of con- 
siderable 



[ 204 ] 

fiderable thicknefs. The reafon alfo mud be 
obvious, why, in the larger animals, as dogs, 
lambs, &c. we fail to excite contractions in all 
the limbs by the application of the two coatings 
to the back, although {tripped of its fiefh. The 
large trunks of the nerves remain dill at too 
great a depth ; and it is only the fmaller 
branches or ramifications that lay but a little 
below the coatings, and thefe branches termi- 
nate, for the mod part, only in the neighbour- 
ing external parts ; confequently we fee pro- 
duced only fuperficial contractions or palpita- 
iri one or other of the mufcles : or if by 
chance a whole limb is put in motion, it is be- 
caufe the nerve that goes to it, and influences 
this motion, is but thinly covered, fo that only 
a thin layer of fibres intervenes between it and 
one or other of the metallic coatings, as appears 
from Experiment D. and the following ones 
(Seel:. 23. &c.) in which the application of one 
of the coatings near the ifchiatic nerve, in a 
dog or a lamb, was fufficient to excite confider- 
abie movements in the leg ; and the nearer the 
coating was to the nerve, and the thinner the 
layer of ficfh was that furrounded it, fo much 
ftronger in proportion were the contractions of 
the limb. 

2 (44-) It 



t *°5 3 

(44.) It becomes therefore neceffary to know 
the fituation of the nerves, their direction, &c. ; 
and it is requtfite to remove not only the com- 
mon integuments, the fat, &c. but likewife part 
of the flefli that covers and furrounds the nerves, 
in order that this furrounding mufcular fubftancc 
may be more or lefs extenuated, previoufly to 
the application of the metallic coating, to enable 
us to obtain in the larger animals contractions in 
any particular limb, to fay nothing of the fu- 
perflcial contractions and palpitations of one or 
more mufcles. It is perhaps impoflible to ex- 
cite thefe fame motions and contractions in all 
the limbs at once; although this is not difficult 
in the fmaller animals, as we have already feen, 
(Sect. 42. Experiments O. and P.) merely by 
depriving them of the fkin or a part of the 
other integuments ; and even this is not necef- 
fary in frogs, for in thefe animals we may 
leave the fkin, it being fo extremely thin and 
moid, as not to prevent, by its interpo{ition ? 
the electrical current from reaching the prin- 
cipal nerves or the fpinal marrow. 

(45.) But if it be neceffary to pay attention 
to the direction of the principal nerves, in or- 
der to bring on the contractions in the different 
limbs, it is not lefs fo to be careful of the po- 
fuion 



[ 206 ] 

fition of the coatings relatively to the mufcles; 
for thofe mufcles which are neareft to one or 
other of the coatings, are in general the moft 
liable to contract fpafmodic convulfions, and 
are oftentimes the only ones in which fuch an 
effect takes place ; as, for inflance, when the 
coatings do not correfpond with any confiderable 
nerve, or if there be a nerve, when it is fur- 
rounded with too much mufcular flefh, or is too 
deeply feated. 

(46.) This, and the Experiments E. F* 
(Seel:. 28.) where a fingle mufcle, and even a 
part of a mufcle, treated in the ufual way, ex* 
perienced very ftrong contractions, might lead to 
a fuppofition that the electric fluid produces thefc 
effects by irritating the mufcular fibres them- 
felves, without the intervention of nerves ; the 
action of which would confequently be neither 
primary, nor abfolutely neceffary, as I pretend. 
But an argument of this fort, founded on thefe 
facts, can have no weight, unlefs it could 
be proved that in thefe mufcles, or portions of 
mufcles, there are no nerves ; for if there are 
nerves, (and certainly there mud be, and are, 
nervous filaments in every fenfible portion of a 
mufcle, I had almofl faid in every mufcular 
fibre) 1 may £1111 maintain that it is thefe ner- 
3 vous 



[ 207 ] 

vous filaments, ramifying through the whole 
fubflance of a mufcle, that are immediately af- 
fected by the electric fluid which penetrates this 
fame fubflance ; that this fluid exerting its in- 
fluence on their nerves, an influence that Hairnes 
there, the latter exert theirs on the mufcles, 
&cc. 1 may, I fay, be able to maintain, with 
fufHcient probability, that the electric fluid has 
no other influence, in the phenomenon of muf- 
cular contractions, than that of exciting the 
nerves ; in a word, that it is not the immediate 
caufe. Such an aifertion, which the things al- 
ready explained render more than probable, is 
proved directly, and in the mod obvious man- 
ner, by feveral experiments I have made on the 
tongue ; experiments that have led me to other 
difcoveries equally interefting and curious. 

(47.) Having fucceeded in exciting tonic 
convulfions, and the mod violent motions in the 
mufcles and limbs, not only of fmall but of 
large animals, without laying bare any nerves, 
by the fimple application of coatings of different 
metals to the mufcles when freed from their in- 
teguments, I foon thought of trying whether the 
fame effects might not be obtained in the human 
body. I conceived that the thing might fucceed 
very well in amputated limbs; but in the en- 
tire 



[ 203 ] 

tire and living fubject how was it to be effected ? 
It Teemed likewife to be neceffary to remove the 
integuments, make deep incifioraS, and even 
diffect off portions of the flem from the parts 
on which we might think of applying the me- 
tallic coatings (as I have remarked we are often 
obliged to do in the larger animals)* Fortu- 
nately it came into my head, that we have, in 
the tongue, a mufcle that is bare, or at lead 
deftitute of thofe thick integuments with which 
the external parts of the body are covered, a 
mufcle which is extremely moveable, and move- 
able at will. Here then, I faid to myfelf, are 
all the conditions requifite to enable us to ex- 
cite movements by the ufual artifice of different 
metallic coatings. With this view I made, on 
my own tongue, the following experiment. 

(48.) Experiment Q^ Having covered 
the point of the tongue, and a part of its upper 
furfacc, to the extent of fome lines, with a 
piece of tin foil, v 'what is called filver paper is 
the fitted for the purpofe) I applied the convex 
part of a filver fpoon farther on, on the flat 
part of the tongue, and by inclining the fpoon 
downwards brought the handle of it into con- 
tact with the tin foil. I expected to fee my 
tongue affected with tremor; and on this ac- 
count 



C *°9 ] 

count I made the experiment before a looking- 
glafs. The effect, however, I had ventured to 
foretel did not take [place; but inftead of it I 
had a fenfation I nowife expected; this was a 
pretty flrong acid talte on the point of the 



tongue. 



(49.) I was at firft much furprifed at this ; 
but upon reflecting a little on the fact, I 
eafily conceived, that die nerves which termi- 
nate on the point of the tongue, being the 
nerves deftined for the fenfations of tafte, and 
not for the motion of this flexible mufcle, It 
was perfectly natural, that the irritation of the 
electric fluid, put in motion by the ufual arti- 
fice, fhould excite a tafte, and nothing more ; 
and that in order to excite in the tongue the 
motions of which it is fufceptible, it would be 
neceffary to apply one of the metallic coatings 
near its root, where the nerves enter that influ- 
ence its motion ; and this I foon verified by an- 
other experiment, as follows ; 

(50.) Experiment R. Having cut out, 
from a lamb recently killed, the tongue near its 
root, I applied a piece of tin foil at the end 
that was cut, and the filver fpoon to one of the 
furfaces of the tongue ; and then forming 3 
communication between thefe two metallic coat- 

Vqi. VI. P ings, 



[ 2IO ] 

ings, I had the pleafure to fee the whole tongue 
affected with tremor, railing its point, and turn- 
ing and bending itfelf in different directions, 
every time, and as long as fuch a communication 
took place. 

(51.) I have repeated this experiment on the 
tongue of a calf, which I placed, coated in th$ 
fame manner with a piece of tin foil near its 
root, on a filver plate, that the latter might 
ferve as another coating; and thefuccefs was the 
fame. I have likewife repeated it on the tongue 
of other fmaller animals, as mice, chicken, 
rabbits, &c. and I have almoft always obtained 
the fame effect. I fay almoft always, for in the 
tongue of the fmaller animals it fometimes failed ; 
cither becaufe the tin foil was not applied exactly 
to the proper place, where the nerves that influ- 
ence the motions of the tongue are inferted ; 
pr becaufe the tongue being cold, had loft its 
vitality, which feldom lafts long in the mufcles 
of animals of warm blood, as I have arlready 
had occaiion to obferve (Sect. 26.), and parti- 
cularly in the tongue. 

I am, &c» 

A. VOLTA. 

XII. A Return 



C 212 3 



XtlL An Account of a fmgular Cafe oflfchuria, in 
a young fVb man, which continued for more than 
three Years ; during which Time, if her Urine 
zvas not drawn off [with the Catheter, Jhe fre- 
quently voided it by vomiting ; and, for the laft 
twenty Months, faffed much Gravel by the Ca- 
theter, as well as by vomiting, when the life of 
that Inftrument was omitted, or unfuccefs fully 
applied. To which are added fome Remarks and 
Phyfological Obfervations. By Ifaac Senter, 
M. D. AJfociate Member of the College of Phy- 
jicians of Philadelphia, andfenior Surgeon in the 
late American Army. Vide TranfaBions of the 
College of Phyficians, of Philadelphia. Vol. I. 
Parti. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1793. 

HT^HE fubjedt of this extraordinary cafe 
JL was a healthy-looking fervant girl, who, 
in June, 1785, being then in her fifteenth year, 
was feized with a pain in the left hypochon- 
drium, accompanied with cough, oppreflion 
At her breaft, dyfpnoea, and fever. 

She had menftruated pretty regularly from 

the age of thirteen till within five weeks of her 

prefent illnefs, which was afcribed to cold. 

P 2 Venae- 



[ 2I 3 3 

Venarfection and ether fuitable remedies were 
had recourfe to by Dr. Senter, to whom (he 
applied for relief, and her complaints foon fub- 
fided ; but about a month afterwards fhe vo- 
mited up a quantity of bloody pus, which in- 
duced him to think a vomica had burft in her 
ftomach ; for during the whole of this illnefs, 
her ftomach, it feems, was fo irritable, that (he 
could with difficulty retain in it cither food or 
medicine. 

She had now a fuppreilion of urine, which, 
after continuing twenty-four hours, went off 
without any medical afliftance. After this (Tic 
became regular in her menfes, and in about 
two months was fufficiently recovered to re- 
fume her employment as a fervant, which fhe 
continued to follow till the 3d of June, 1786, 
when all her former complaints (except the 
f up predion of the menfes) returned with greater 
feverity than before. 

Herpulfe was now at 120; her ftomach, as 
during the former attack, was fo irritable, that 
fhe vomited up immediately almoft every thing 
fhe took. Of the different remedies that were 
had recourfe to, opium, when fhe could retain 
it on her ftomach, and repeated blood-letting in 
fmall. quantities, gave her the molt relief. 

On 



C * T 4 ] 

On the 2d of July, when the fe verity of the 
fymptoms had fubfided, (he was feized with a 
total fupjyreflion of urine, which continued till 
the beginning of the fixth day, when a vomit- 
ing came on, which lafted till me brought up 
nothing but water ; and this water, Hie faid, 
tafted like urine. 

As the vomiting continued (he found relief 
from the forenefs nnd fvvelling (he had felt for 
feveral days in the lower part of the abdomen. 

She now thought herfelf much better, but 
the vomiting continued to return, more or lefs, 
every day, till the 14th of July, when Dr. 
Senter again faw her, and prevailed on her to 
fubmit to the introduction of a catheter, by 
means of which he drew off about three pints 
of clear, but high-coloured, urine. 

From this time, till December, die conti- 
nued with very little abatement of her com- 
plaints ; and as fhe could lie in no other "por- 
tion, was conftantly fupported in an arm chair, 
in a reclined pofture, with pillows under , her 
hips. 

During the whole of this period, whenever 

her water was omitted to be drawn off once in 

thirty or thirty-fix hours at farther!:, fhe never 

failed, we are afTurcd, to vomit it up. To af- 

P 3 certain 



C «i ] 

certain to extraordinary a facl, our author tells 
us he often vilited her about the time he knew 
fhe mud vomit if the catheter was not intro- 
duced ; and after examining her bladder, and 
finding it full, haid, and tender, fat by her till 
the vomiting returned, faved the water that fhe 
brought up in this way, and on comparing it 
with whet he drew off by means of the cadie- 
ter, found it the fame in every refpech 

During the time her urine came off by vo« 
miting, fhe fuffered, it feems, great 
and third, and complained of a fen fat ion of 
inverfion or turning up oi fomerhing (running, 
as lhe exprefled it) that appeared to tear her 
bowels. 

la January, 17S7, from fbme caufe ui 
lhe could not be relieved with the inflrurv 
nor could fhe vomit up her urine for 
days ; but at length it paiTed by the nave] for 
three days fucceflively ; after which the catheter 
was ufed with the fame effect as before. 

About the beginning of Auguft a brick-co- 
ioured gravel began to pafs off through the ca- 
theter, and continued to be difcharged in con- 
fiderable quantity, whenever her urine was 
drawn off, till the beginning of November ; at 
which time lhe felt more diftrefs than ufual, 

when 



C "6 ] 

whenever her urine came off by vomiting, and 
fhe foon obferved a gritty fubftance in her 
mouth. When our author was informed of this 
new phenomenon, he requefted her to fave the 
urine for his infpe<flion the next time fhe vo- 
mited; and on comparing it with what he drew 
off, found it contained the fame kind of gravel 
as that which palled the catheter. 

From this period, to the fummer of 1788, 
her complaints, he obferves, continued much 
the fame; but during that fummer (lie twice 
patfe-d a fmall quantity of urine through the 
urethra, each time in confequence of being 
frightened. The hypogaftrium became more 
tumid, and fhe complained of great forenefs 
about the bladder, even after it was evacuated; 
the bladder itfelf feemed to be much thick- 
ened, and the apparent inequality of its furface 
was fo great, and the tumour fometimes fhifted 
fo towards the right or left inguen, according 
as her body was moved, that our author fuf- 
peded the exiftence of a ftone. 

Through the month of September her urine, 
we are told, could very rarely be drawn off; 
for upon the introduction of the catheter, a 
fpafm feized the urethra and neck of the blad- 
der, fo that although the inftrument feemed to 
P 4 pafs 



[ "7 ] 

high Ufl into the bladder, not more : 
U of urine could be .1 off, before it 

flopped cntii yn of fomething 

falling dc linft the cervix, which (lie 

C : follow- 

ing m .- . sing able to introduce 

a foui :med 

I fize, and fofter than ur: 
:ommor' are. 

ir feveral 
: fTerent parts of her b 
: appear to relieve her general 
ied at t 
(he r. up her ufio 5 cf 

This purulent difcharge, it is 
■-. .. ras never rated by cough 

cough, be: 
_ht up b 
In the fpring of 17S9 her urine began to 
per anu-fK, loaded with the fame kind of 
that had cc catheter, 

.bed but did not put a flop to her 
far fhe continued to throw up more 
or lefs gravel that way eve .. This 

courie of her urine occafioned a trouble 
diarrhoea and tenefinuSj but the felt le. 
ftqne in the bladder. 

After 



[ ai8 ] 

After the 13th of May her bladder never be- 
came fo much diflended with urine as it had 
been before ; and the fecretion of urine, as well 
as the formation of gravely we are toid, evi- 
dently diminiihed in proportion to her lofs of 
flrength, and the increafe of the diarrhoea. 
The menfes, winch, during the whole of her 
illneis, had returned at irregular periods, now 
entirely ceafed. During the Cummer, the fre- 
quency of vomiting increafed ; ihe had feveral 
convulfive fits after vomiting ; became more 
and more emaciated, and hectical; and, at 
laft,. lethargic ; and on the nth of Auguft, 
1789, died. 

The body was examined the day after her 
death, by Dr. Senter, in the prefence of Dr. 
Watcrhoufe, of Cambridge, and Dr. Mafon, 
of Philadelphia, who, as well as feveral other 
refpectable medical practitioners, had occa- 
fionally vifited her in her life-time, and feen her 
vomit up both urine and gravel. 

On direction, nothing was difcovered that 
could throw any light on the nature of the 
difeafe. 

In the thorax, the only morbid appearance 
was an adhefion of part of the right lobe of 
the lungs to the pleura. 

In 



[ "9 ] 

In the abdomen, the omentum was found 
much wafted, and of a dark gangrenous co- 
lour ; the ftomach alfo is defcribed as being in 
a gangrenous ftate, and containing i a femi-pu- 
1 rulent matter, of a foetid (cent;' but the wea- 
ther, we find, was very warm, and the body in 
an offenfive ftate, at the time the difTe&ion was 
made. Nothing particularly worthy of notice 
was obfervcd in the ftate of the liver, gall- 
bladder, interlines, kidneys, or ureters. The 
urinary bladder was alfo in its natural ftate, not 
in the lead thickened, and contained no fand 
or gravel. The uterus contained about a 
drachm of thick, foetid pus, but had no other 
appearance of difeafe; the Fallopian tubes were 
larger than ufual, and ftrung with feveral hyda- 
tids of the fize of a walnut ; the corpora fim- 
briata had a gangrenous appearance ; the ova- 
ria were enlarged to the fize of a fmall hen's egg, 
and diftended with a clear limpid fluid. . 

To the preceding hiftory Dr. Senter has 
added many judicious remarks ; and in his at- 
tempt to account for the phenomena of fo very 
uncommon a cafe, has not omitted to avail 
himfelf of the modern doctrine of the retro- 
grade motion of the lymphatics, and of the 
opinions of thofe writers who have maintained 

-the 



[ 22 ° ] 

the exiftence of a direct communication between 
the alimentary canal and the urinary bladder. 

There are many inftances, he obferves, in 
medical books, of fudden and partially-in- 
creafed actions of the verTels of the human 
body ; but he candidly acknowledges that his 
reading has furnifhed him with no fact fimilar 
to the extraordinary one which is the fubject of 
the paper before us * : that which he confiders 

as 



* There are, however, upon record, two cafes which ex- 
hibit a ft liking analogy to that of Dr. Senter's patient ; and 
although they may have been overlooked, or perhaps difre- 
garded on a fuppoiition of their improbability, they mult 
now become extremely interefting by the tendency they have 
to corroborate the curious and extraordinary facts he has re- 
lated. Both the cafes we allude to occur in the Hiftory of 
the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and are as follows : 

Cafe I. " M. Maraldi has communicated to the Aca- 
*' demy the following cafe, from a letter addreffed to him 
" by M. Marangoni, phyfician at Mantua: 

< f A Nun, of the Order of St. Francis, in the convent of 
" St. Jofeph, at Mantua, aged thirty-five years, of a thin 
tf and delicate habit of body, and who had long been fub- 
M jecl to hyfterical complaints, was attacked with pains, 
* ( fpafms, and fwelling of the abdomen, to which fuccceded 
" a violent and alarming fuppreffion of urine. Soon after 
" this (lie felt a pain, which (he defcribed as afcending from 
* the lower part of the abdomen to her itomach ; and Pat 

11 vomited 



[ 221 ] 

as coming the neareft to it, is a cafe defcribed 
by Dr. Percival, in the fecond volume of his 
Eflays, Medical and Experimental, (8vo, 

London, 

" vomited a fluid which, without any difficulty, was 
<( known to be urine. This vomiting continued forty days, 
•' during which time the patient voided no urine by the 
u ufual channel, unlefs the furgeon drew it off with a ca- 
" theter, and even then the quantity icarcely amounted to 
•' an ounce a day. At the end of the forty days, the urine 
u fpontaneoufly refumed its natural courfe, and in a day or 
" two the patient found herfelf perfectly recovered. But 
<c the vomiting of urine returned, and at the end of twenty- 
" feven days, the patient complained of very acute pain 
" about the region of the pubis. Her furgeon was defirous 
" of relieving her by means of the catheter, but there was 
" fuch a contraction of the urethra, that he found it impof- 
" iible to introduce even a probe into the bladder. The 
€C vomiting of urine has continued, and what is remarka- 
M ble, there is no appearance of food mixed with it, even 
t( when the vomiting takes place foon after her meals. 
(S When M. Marangoni wrote this account, the patient had 
" been in this ftate thirty-two days. 

li This fingular complaint would lead one to think there 
" is an immediate though hitherto undifcovered commu- 
« c nication between the ftomach and the urinary bladder ; 
t4 but M. Marangoni and the celebrated Lancifi are of a 
*' different opinion; they both of thefn think, that in cafes 
c: of this kind a fuppreiiion of urine takes place in the kid- 
H neys; that is to fay, that the kidn«ys ceafe to extract this 

" fluid 



[ 111 ] 

London, 1773) of a woman who, after a fpon- 
taneous vomiting of feveral days, during which 
fhe brought up three gallons of water, was en- 
tirely cured of a dropfy of the ovarium. 

" fluid from the blood, and that in their (lead the glands of 
M the ftomach perform this function." 

Cafe II. " M. Lemery is acquainted with a Monk, who, 
44 for about eight years, has been fubject to a periodical vo- 
44 miting, the fits of which are as regular as thofe of a quar- 
" tan ague. Five hours, or thereabouts, before the vomit- 
44 ing begin* he complains of violent pains in his kidneys. 

44 The vomiting continues, with intervals, four or five 

45 hours. What he vomits is of a dirty red colour. It is 
44 almoft entirely water, but has a ftrong urinous fmell, and 
44 the patient has no doubt of its being really urine, as he 
** eats but very little, and drinks more than the ufual portion 
* c of a Monk. He drinks only wine, the colour^of which 
44 agrees with that of the fluid he vomits. A few hours 
44 after the vomiting he finds himfelf well, and remains fo 
44 till the next fit. He ufes a great deal of exercife, with- 
44 out which he thinks he mould fuffer more. It is a known 
44 fact, that in nephritic pains, which are always occafioned 
44 by obft ructions of the kidneys, the patients are fubjeel to 
*' frequent vomiting, and that what they bring up fmells 

44 much of urine." See Hiftoire de l'Academie Roy ale 

des Sciences, Anneei 1715 & 1722." Editor. 



CATALOGUR 



C * 2 3 ] 



CATALOGUE of BOOKS. 

i. nn HOUGHTS on the Effects of the Ap- 
JL plication and Abftraction of Stimuli 
on the Human Body ; with a particular View to 
explain the Nature and Cure of Typhus. By 
J. Woody M. D. 8vo. Murray > London, 1793. 

2. An Account of the Bilious, Remitting, 
Yellow Fever, as it appeared in the City of 
Philadelphia in the year 1793. By Benjamin 
Ru/h, M. D. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1794. 

3. Obfervations on the Caufe, Nature, and 
Treatment of the Epidemic Diforder prevalent 
in Philadelphia. By D. Nafy, ML D. Mem- 
ber of the American Philofophical Society. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 17^3. 

4. A Short Account of the Malignant Fever, 
lately prevalent in Philadelphia ; with a State- 
ment of the Proceedings that took place on the 
Subject in different Parts of the United States,. 
By Matthew Carey. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1793. 

5. A Treatife on the Extraction of the Ca- 
taraft. By Fredrick Bifchoff, F. M. S. Oculift 
to his Majefty in the Electorate of Hanover, 

1 and 



C 224 ] 

and to her Majefty in England. 8vo. Nicol, 
London, 1793. 

6. An Account of a Fever which appeared 
in feveral Parts of Somerfetlbire in the year 
1792. By Richard Poole, Surgeon, Sherborne. 
8vo. John/on, London, 1793. 

7. A Guide for Self-Prefervation and Paren- 
tal Affection ; or plain Directions for enabling 
People to keep themfelves and their Children 
free from feveral common Diforders. By Tho- 
mas Beddoes, M. D. 12010. Murray, London, 

1793- 

8. A Chemical DifTertation on the Thermal 

Waters of Pifa, and on the neighbouring aci- 
dulous Spring of Afciano ; with an Historical 
Sketch of Pifa, and a Meteorological Account 
of its Weather. To which are added. Analy- 
tical Papers rdpedfcing the Sulphureous Water 
of Yverdun. By John Nott, M. D. of Biiflol 
Hot-wells. 8vo. Walter, London, 1793. 

9. Horti Botanici Cantabrigienlis Catalogus. 
8vo. Cantabrigian, 1794. 

10. Flora Oxonienfis, exhibens Plantas in 
agro Oxonienfi fponte crefcentes, fecundum 
Syftema fexuale diftributas. Auclore Joanne 
Sibthorpy M. D. ProferTore Regio Botanico, Re- 
gime Societatis Londinenfis aliarumque Societa- 
turn Socio. 8vo. Oxonii, 1794. 

11. Differ- 



[ 22 5 ] 

n. Differtatio Inauguralis de Angina ma- 
ligna. Au&ore Arthur o Bedford, Anglo. Svo, 
Edinburgi, 1792. 

12. Diifertatio Inauguralis de Refpiratione* 
Audtore Thoma . Scoto-Biu^nno. 8vo. 
Edin. 1792. 

13. Diifertatio Inauguralis de Variolis. Auc- 
tore Joanne Bower, Scoto. 8vo. Edin. 1792. 

14. Differtatio Inauguralis de Vifu. Auc- 
tore Wheaton BradlJJo, Hiberno. 8vo. Edin. 
1792. 

15. Differtatio Inauguralis de Rheumatifmo 
acuto. Audtore Joanne Bradley, Anglo. 8vo, 
Edin. 1792. 

16. Differtatio Inauguralis de Cceli Effedtibus. 
Audtore Jacobo Buchan, Scoto. 8vo. Edin. 
1792. 

17 Differtatio Inauguralis de Rheumatifmo 
acuto. Audtore Andrea Grieve, Scoto. 8vo. 
Edin. 1792. 

18. Differtatio Inauguralis de Hypochon- 
driafi. Auclore David Corbin Kerr> Virginienfe. 
Svo. Edin. 1792. 

19. Differtatio Inauguralis de Variolis. Auc- 
tore Gulielmo Marjden, Anglo Britanno. 8vo. 
Edin. 1792. 

20. Differtatio Inauguralis de Pneumonia* 
% Audtore 



[ 226 ] 

Au&ore dirolo Merlvether, Virginienfe. 8vo. 
Edin. 1792. 

21. DifTertatio Inauguralis de Variolis. Auc- 
tore Roberto Montgomery, Hibcrno. 8vo. Edin. 
1792. 

22. DifTertatio Inauguralis de Hydrope Ana- 
farca. Auclore Thoma Pollard Pierce, Barba- 
denfe. 8vo. Edin. 1792. 

23. DifTertatio Inauguralis de Angina ma- 
ligna. Auctore Georgio fVier, Scoto. 8vo 
Edin> 1792. 

24. DifTertatio Inauguralis de Alimento. 
Auctore Gulielmo Yates, Anglo. 8vo. Edin. 
1792. 

25. DifTertatio Inauguralis de Coitu ejufque 
rariis Formis quatenus Medicorum Tunt. Auc- 
tore Johanne Paul Gottleib Kircheifen. 4to. 
Jena, 1792. 

26. Analyfe du Syfteme abforbant ou lym- 
phatique. Par M. des Genettes, D. M. 8vo. 
Montpellier, 1791. 

27. Memoire fur une Maladie de TOvaire. 
Par Jean Baptljle Ph. R. N. Laumonier, Chirur- 
gien en chef de l'Hotel Dieu de Rouen. 4to. 
Rouen, 1790. 

28. Avis aux Sages Femmes; parM. Sacombe, 
Vol. VI. Q^ Medecin 



I 227 ] 

Medecin-Accoucheur, Membrc de plufieurs 
Academies. 8vo. Paris, 1792. 

29. Recherches Phyfico ch) miques. Cahiers 
I. II. III. 4to. Amfterdam, 1793-4. 

30. Memoires de l'Academie Royale des 
Sciences et Belles Lettres depuis l'Avenement de 
Frederic Guillaume II. au Trone. 1783 et 
1789. Avec l'Hiftoire pour le meme Terns. 
4to. Berlin, 1793. 

31. Sammlung der Deutfchen Abhandlungen 
welche in der Kbniglichen Akademie der Wif- 
fenfchaften zu Berlin vorgdefen worden in den 
Jahren 1788 und 1789. i.e. A Collection of 
German EfTays, read before ihe Roval Academy 
of Sciences at Berlin, in the Years 1788 and 
1789. 4to. Berlin, 1793. 

32. Memoria Chirurgica ful Labbro leporino 
complicate; di Giufeppe So nfis, R AfTefT. Me- 
dico, &c. 4to. Cremona, 1/93. 

^ Pifaura Automorpha e Coreopfis formofa ; 
Piante nuove pubbiicateda Giufeppe Antonio Bo- 
nato, Dott. di Medicina, puobl.co Bibliorcca- 
rio, Ifpettore e Soprantendente all' Orto me- 
dico dell* Univerfita di Padova. 4to. Padova, 

*79S? 



INDEX. 



[ 228 J 



INDEX, 



A, 

ACID, Vegetable, Solution of Sal Ammoniac in, good 
effects of, in lacerated Wounds, — 66 

Africa, Coait of, Obfervations on the Difeafes mod frequent 
there, — — — 60 

Aliment, DhTertation on, 226 

Ammoniacal Salt, Solution of, in Vinegar, good effects of, in 

lacerated Wounds, ■ 66 

Anafarca, Diflertation on, — — 226 

Aneurifm, of the Crural Artery, Cafe of, — 114 

Angina, malignant, Differtations on, — 22 c, 226 

Animal Electricity, Obfervations and Experiments relative 

to, ■ 161 

Antimony, tartarifed, recommended as the beft Emetic in the 

Intermittents of Tropical Climates, 42 

— ■ , ill effects of naufeating Dofes of, during 

the State of apyrexia in fuch Cafes, ibid, 
Arfenic, Obfervations on its Ufe in Intermittents, 1, 46, 61 
« , Effects of, in fuch Cafes, when combined with Pe- 
ruvian Bark, ■ 43 

faid to be as powerful and nearly as certain as the 



Bark, in the Cure of Intermittents ; but allowed to be in- 
ferior to the Bark in its tonic Effects, — 46 
Conjecture concerning its fpecific Action, and that 



of the Bark, in the Cure of Intermittents, 47 

, Account of irregular Cafes of Intermittents in 

which it fails, ■ 44 

Hiftorical Account of its Ufe in Intermittents, 46 



Atmofpheres, Electrical, Effects of, on Frogs and other Ani- 
mals, 166 

B. 

Bark, Peruvian, the only Remedy to be relied on in the In- 
termittents of Tropical Climates threatening immediate 
Danger, _ 44 

, Conjectures relative to its fpecific Action 

jn the Cure of Intermittents, ■ 47, 143 

Q^2 Bark, 



[ "9 ] 

Peruvian, Prejudices which ftiH prevail agamft its 

57 



Beddoes, Thomas, Guide for Self-prefervadoo, 224 

L-:-.:"'.:: ; A::' .:. :t A-.ii.-.i "i^.-r.i, 

Berlin, Memoir* of the Academy of Sciences at, 227 

l'/..: .A, ?':?:. -. - :— .Am::?:::-.- ;:" :;.= _i:i;: :: ; 223 
I'.i!:. V ::;:.. :■: > r.":i:i:->.-t. — 

, William, of the Extraction of anextraneoiu Subftance 

:::-.-. :t ? t::.~. III 

Bonato, G. Anton. Deicription of two new Plants, 227 

Bower, Joannes, de Variolis, 

\ Wheaton, de Vifn, ;r y. 

Bread, tcailed, Inftancr of its producing painful Effects in 

- ~A :.--. in 

Bcchan, jacobus, de Coeli Effecubus, : ; - 

C. 
Cambridge, Catalogue of the Botanic Garden at, 

er, Profeffcr, his Damamftr. Ana!. PathoL referred to, 

107, 108 

Carey, Matthew, Account of the Yellow Ferer at Phi- 

UHfriiiij 223 

Carter, Henry Yates, on the Effects of Sal Ammoniac and 

T ::.:.:: :- A;.;,: A *•": _r.:A, 66 

— <. , Cafe of a difcafed Kidney, • - 

Gun-fLot Wound, 91 

•.:.-,: :-'-.. ~ " :*::::"■: : :. :>- Z^:n:::-.r. ::", 223 

•-;::.:"-. r. : : _•£-. :":-: : :;. AA::::A: /, ; : - 

CA.Ar.cr.z, ::£*:?:.: ::.::r: -.:". ~-.:.-^:::t:. — 146 

Robot, Account of a new Key Inftrument, 
Climate, Dinerution on the Efiects of, — 225 

• 'etaCic, Advantages of, in Experiments of Animal 

Electric; 174 

s different Metals, Gbfcrvations on ti t 

r^ents 01 Animal Electricity, 17S . 

D. 

l. !:::'.-. -jl-i. ~-\r' .':: A ' .'. A ■ £ -:--. "- : A .!:. C ■:"•:• '.f, Ij6 

Duncan, Dr. Andrew-, Junior, his Dinertation on the 
etenia Soymida lefeiied to, . 144 

E. 

iAA:..~; . Ar.i.Ti". / A:»_r.„ ; ~ .;_- A..~:.:; :A.:::.- 
jfjj 

EkQndty, 



[ *3° ] 

Electricity, Difcovery of anew Law in, «— 177, 192 

, Eftimatc of the Quantity of, neceflary to produce 

certain Effects in a Frog, ■ 1 170 

Electrometer, Animal, what fo called, — 171 

Emetics, good Effects of, in Intermittents, 41, 42 

F. 

Fever, Epidemic, in Somerfetfhire, "Work relative to, 224 
, Intermittent, of a Tropical Climate, Obfervations 

on, * ( 1 

, how diftin- 

guifhed from the Remittent, 43 

■ — , anomalous 

Cafes of, defcribed, . 44 

» — — y See Antimonj, 

Arfenic, Bark, Emetics, Opium, 

Intermittent and Remittent* the raoft frequent Dif- 



eafes on the Coaft of Africa, 6p 

Yellow, at Philadelphia, Works relative to, 223 



Forfter, Thompfon, Cafe of Aneurifm of the Crural Artery, 

Frogs, Effects of Electric Atmofpheres on, — 166 

G. 
Galvani, Lewis, Account of his Difcoveries relative to Ani- 
mal Electricity, ■ ■ ■ ■» 161 

Genettes, M. des, Analyfe du Syfteme Lymphatique, 226 

Gravel, voided, with Urine, by vomiting, — 215 

Grieve, Andreas, de Rheumatifmo acuto, 22^ 

H. 

Hare Lip, Work relative to, 227 

Head, Cafe of a Gun-fhot Wound of, — 91 

Hughes, Francis, on the Effects of Mahogany Wood in Di- 

arrhcea, ■ ic6 

Hypochondriacal Affection, DifTertation on, — 22 £ 

7 
Infects, feveral Species of, not affected by Electricity, 194 
Intermittents of a Tropical Climate, Obfervations on the Ufc 

ofArfenicin, 1 

, , Ufeof Opium in, 41 

Emetics in, ibid. 



, how diftinguiihed from 

a Remittent Fever, « 42 

-, Circumfrances of, i n 



which the Bark alone is to be relied on, ^ 

Intermittents 



C 2 3i ] 

Intcrmittents of a Tropical Climate, anomalous Cafes of, 

defcribed, > ... ihid % 

Ifchuria, fingular Cafe of, « 212 

Iflue, fingular Effects of, ■ i o 

K. 
Kerr, David Corbin, de Hypochondriafi, — 225 

Key Inftrument, of a new Conftruction, Account of, 120 
■ , Obfervations on the Principles k on which it 

acts, ( ' 124 

Kidney difeafed, Cafe of, , %r 

, Appearance of, on DifTection, 89 

Kircheifen^ I. P. G, Differtatio de Coitu, — 226 

L 
Lancifi, his Theory of a Cafe in which Urine was voided by 

vomiting, ■ ■ 221 

Laumonier, M. fur uneMaladiedeTOvaire, — 226 
Ifmery, M. Cafe of a Monk who vomited Urine, 222 

Ley den Phial, the fuppofed Analogy of, to fome Phenomena 

of Animal Electricity, 190 

Lizard, Experiment on, 202 

Lorimer, Dr. John, Return of the Sick on Board the Eaft- 

India Company's Ships for the Years 1792 and 1793, 211 
Lymphatic Syftem, Work relative to, 226 

M. 

Mahogany, a new Species of, defcribed, and its Bark recom- 
mended as a Subftitute for the Peruvian Bark, 1 27 
»' , Wood, Account of its Effects in Diarrhoea, 1 c6~ 

— — , of Jamaica, defcribed as more aftringent 

than that of Honduras, 157 

^flarangoni, M. Cafe of a Patient who vomited Urine, 220 

Marfden, Gulielmus, de Variolis, 225 

Melia Azadirachta, the Bark of, recommended as a Subftitute 

for Peruvian Bark, 1 54 

Merrivether, Carolus, de Pneumonia, — 225 

Montgomery, Robertus, de Variolis, ■ 226 

Mufcles, Experiments on, 188, 191, 198, 202 

i , not immediately affected by Electricity, 179, 200 

■ — , voluntary, the only ones affected by weak Currents 

of Electricity, 197 

N. 
NalTy, Dr. D. Obfervations on the Epidemic Fever at Phila- 
delphia, 223 

Nauclea 



C 2 3 2 3 

Nauclea Daduga, Bark of, its Properties defcribed, i$$ 
Nerves, the only Parts immediately affected by Electricity, 

r 179, 200 

. , Effects of certain morbid Alterations of, 96 

, Experiments on, ■ 181 

, painful Effects of Preffure on, ■ 101 

, fubcmaneous, a Difeafe of, defcribed, 108 

Nott, Dr. John, on the Waten of Pifaand Yverdun, 224 

O. 
Opium, its Effects in the Intermittents of a tropical Cli- 

.nate, • 41 

Ovarium, Dropfy of, cured by a fpontaneous vomiting, 221 

P. 
Pearfon, John, Account of extraordinary Symptoms arifing 

from certain morbid Affections of the Veins and Nerves, 96 
Percival, Dr. his Account of a Dropfy of the Ovarium cured 

by a fpontam us vomiting, referred to, - 221 

Philadelphia, Works relative to the Yellow Fever at, 223 
Pierce, Thomas Pollard, de Hydrope Anafarca, 226 

Pifa, DiiTertation on the Thermal Waters of, — . 224 
Pneumonia, DiiTertation on, _— _ 2 2f 

Poole, Richard, Account of an Epidemic Fever in Somer- 

fetihire, ■ 224 

Pouteau, M. his Pofthumous Works quoted > ioj 

Quadrupeds, Experiments on, — 181, i8t 

R. 

Recherches Phyfico-chymiques, « . 227 

Remittent Fever, See Fever. 

Refpiration, DiiTertation on, ■ 22^ 

Rheumatifm, acute, DiiTertation on, — 22c 

Roxburgh, Dr. W. Account of a new Species of Swletenia, 

. 12 j 

Rufh, Dr. Benj. of the Bilious Remitting Yellow Fever, 223 

S. 
Sacombe, M. Avis aux Sages Femmes -r- 226 

Sal Ammoniac. — See Ammoniacal Salt. 
Senter, Dr. Ifaac, of a fingular Cafe of Ifchuria 212 

Sibthorp, Joannes, Flora Oxonieniis . 224 

Sierra Leone, Account of the Weathe at, — 2 

Small Pox, DiiTertations on, — 225, 226 

Sonfis, G. his Work relative to the Hare Lip, 227 

Stimuli, Work relative to the Effects of, — 223 

Swietenit, 



C 233 ] 

Swietenia, Accounts of two new Species of, 127, 1^3 

T. 

Teeth, Obfervations on the Extraction of, by the Key Inftru- 

ment, — _ . 121 

Tongue, human, Experiments on, 208 

. , of Quadrupeds, Experiments on, 209,210 

Typhus, WorK: relative to the Nature and Cure of x 223 

V. 
Vinegar, Solution of Sal Ammoniac in, Effects of, on lace- 
rated Wounds, — s — 66 

Vifion, DiiTertation on, 225 

Volta, Alexander, Tranflation of his Letters on Animal 

Electricity, 161 

Urine, Cafes in which it has been voided by vomiting, 

212, 220, 222 

W. 

Wallurfe, a Tree fo called by the Hindoos, defcribed, 1 54 

Wier, Georgius, de Angina maligna, — 226 

Winterbottom, Dr. 1 . M. on the Ufe of Arferic in Inter- 

mittents, 1 

_ , Account of the Weather at Si- 
erra Leone, 2 

Worms, n t affected by Electricity, . 194 

Wood, Dr. J. on the Application and Abstraction of Stimuli, 

223 

Y. 

Yates, Gulielmus, de Alimento, 226 

Yellow Fever, Works relative to it, 223 

Yverdun, Work relative to the fulphureous Water of, 224 



IND OF THE SIXTH VOLUME* 



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